Place Order For A Top Grade Assignment Now
We have some amazing discount offers running for the studentsPlace Your Order
The hospital acquired infection related accessible data are somewhat limited in case of the developing countries; however, a current investigation by WHO depicted that the risk of “hospital” infection in developing countries is more frequent in comparison with developed countries. Whenever the predominance of “hospital” infection differs in the vicinity of 5.7% and 19.1% in low as well as middle-income nations. The ratio of ICU-acquired infections among patients varied from 4.4%-88.9% and around two to three times higher than the developed countries. Besides, in few developing nations, the recurrence of contaminations related with the utilization of central lines, intrusive equipments, and ventilators conceivably comparable equal to nineteen times greater than the developed countries (Bammigatti et al., 2017). However, infection in surgical site is considered as the principal contamination especially in case of the normal patients in developing countries; while, the affected patient’s proportion is 9 times greater in developing countries compared with developed countries (Plowman et al., 2001; Zingg et al., 2017).
The hospital-related infections related to patient’s safety concerns as well as make further distress in terms of long-term functional disability, which sometimes, prompt incapacitating conditions that decrease the quality of life; it can enhance anti-microbial resistance, emotional stress, longer hospital stays; which in turn not only cause huge financial burden for the patients and their respective families but also, increase futile mortality rates (WHO, 2016; Osterholm et al., 2000).
Review of the Literature:
Regulation of hospital-acquired infection:
Although compelling attempts apply to prevent hospital-associated infections; yet more effort needed to manage these contaminations. Implementation of control programs and infection prevention is required to ensure the well being of the patients as well as healthcare staffs. Organization, staffs, people admitted or visiting healthcare facility must consider such projects to assume their part in the counteractive action of contaminations. The analysis of several literature review demonstrated that healthcare organizations, which implemented infection control program that included reconnaissance and control segments, could lessen HAIs by 32% contrasted and those healthcare institutes that did not implement this sort of program or the basic elements (Nazir & Kadri, 2017; Danasekaran et al., 2017).
The infection control and prevention program at the healthcare facility is an arranged, methodical way to deal with screen and assess the quality and suitability of infection control methodology and process. The program is the strategy of functioning which is assigned to distinguish contaminations, which develop in admitted patients and healthcare workers that have the potential for transmission of infection, recognize possibilities for the decrease of hazard for infection transmission, and suggest risk minimization methods by incorporating standards of vigorous infection control management in patient care; also provide training and instruction to the healthcare staffs, distillation and sterilization proceedings at healthcare services and control and surveillance by in-house reviews and different recording appliances. The primary point of the disease control program is to bring down the danger of a contamination amid the time of hospitalization. This kind of control initiative can forestall 33% of hospital-acquired contaminations (Khan et al., 2015; Li et al., 2017; Ziaee et al., 2017; Kalenic & Budimir, 2009).
Infection Control Team management in Hospital:
Establishment of Infection control organization is a necessary part of the infection prevention program. Though, the ideal organizational structure will fluctuate according to the requirements, type, and resources of the healthcare institutes. The team should have a direct reporting connection to either management or the healthcare workers to facilitate perceptibility and efficacy. It is currently a worldwide acknowledged aspect that the infection control team is playing the role of policymaker for the infection control program in every healthcare organization. This committee incorporates all-inclusive embodiment from pertinent departments such as management, physicians, nursing staffs, health care workers, clinical microbiology, maintenance, pharmacy, medical representatives, housekeeping members. The committee is responsible for the planning of policies regarding the prevention and control of infection. Team members of Infection control committee embrace the daily functions of infection control, along with developing and evaluating policies regarding infection control, preparing yearly work plan for surveillance and prevention, giving counsel and direction in regards to infection control proceedings, review surveillance data, identification and investigation of epidemic conditions, promotion of awareness activities within healthcare facility, provide proper education and training of staff (Ziaee et al., 2017; National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System, 2004; Balarabe et al., 2015; Núñez-Núñez et al., 2017).
Surveillance of Healthcare-associated or Nosocomial infection:
Bammigatti, C., Doradla, S., Belgode, H. N., Kumar, H., & Swaminathan, R. P. (2017). Healthcare associated infections in a resource limited setting. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 11(1), OC01.
Berríos-Torres, S. I., Umscheid, C. A., Bratzler, D. W., Leas, B., Stone, E. C., Kelz, R. R., ... & Dellinger, E. P. (2017). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline for the prevention of surgical site infection, 2017. JAMA surgery, 152(8), 784-791.
Collins, A. S. (2008). Preventing health care–associated infections.
Danasekaran, R., Mani, G., & Annadurai, K. (2017). Prevention of healthcare-associated infections: protecting patients, saving lives. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 1(1), 67-68.
Dellinger, E. P. (2016). Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections. Surgical infections, 17(4), 422-426.
Dresser, L. D., Bell, C. M., Steinberg, M., Ferguson, N. D., Lapinsky, S., Lazar, N., ... & Morris, A. M. (2017). Use of a structured panel process to define antimicrobial prescribing appropriateness in critical care. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 73(1), 246-249.
Ellingson, K., Haas, J. P., Aiello, A. E., Kusek, L., Maragakis, L. L., Olmsted, R. N., ... & VanAmringe, M. (2014). Strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections through hand hygiene. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 35(8), 937-960.
Li, Y., Gong, Z., Lu, Y., Hu, G., Cai, R., & Chen, Z. (2017). Impact of nosocomial infections surveillance on nosocomial infection rates: A systematic review. International Journal of Surgery, 42, 164-169.
Kalenic, S., & Budimir, A. (2009). The role of microbiology laboratory in healthcare-associated infection prevention. International Journal of Infection Control, 5(2).
Khan, H. A., Baig, F. K., & Mehboob, R. (2017). Nosocomial infections: Epidemiology, prevention, control and surveillance. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 7(5), 478-482.
Khan, H. A., Ahmad, A., & Mehboob, R. (2015). Nosocomial infections and their control strategies. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 5(7), 509-514.
Loveday, H. P., Wilson, J., Pratt, R. J., Golsorkhi, M., Tingle, A., Bak, A., ... & Wilcox, M. (2014). epic3: national evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections in NHS hospitals in England. Journal of Hospital Infection, 86, S1-S70.
MacGowan, A., & Macnaughton, E. (2017). Antimicrobial therapy: principles of use. Medicine, 45(10), 614-621.
Magill, S. S., Edwards, J. R., Bamberg, W., Beldavs, Z. G., Dumyati, G., Kainer, M. A., ... & Ray, S. M. (2014). Multistate point-prevalence survey of health care–associated infections. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(13), 1198-1208.
Mehta, Y., Gupta, A., Todi, S., Myatra, S. N., Samaddar, D. P., Patil, V., ... & Ramasubban, S. (2014). Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections. Indian journal of critical care medicine: peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine, 18(3), 149.
Nazir, A., & Kadri, S. M. (2017). An overview of hospital acquired infections and the role of the microbiology laboratory. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 2(1), 21-27.
National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. (2004). National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2004, issued October 2004. Am J Infect Control, 32, 470-485.
Núñez-Núñez, M., Navarro, M. D., Gkolia, P., Rajendran, N. B., Del Toro, M. D., Voss, A., ... & Rodríguez-Baño, J. (2017). Surveillance systems from public health institutions and scientific societies for antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections in Europe (SUSPIRE): protocol for a systematic review. BMJ open, 7(3), e014538.
Osterholm, M. T., Hedberg, C. W., & Moore, K. A. (2000). The epidemiology of infectious diseases. GL M, Jr DRG, JE B, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5th ed ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 161-3.
Potter, F. F. E. (2018). Principles of initiating antimicrobial therapy and empiric prescribing. Assessment, 15, 43.
Plowman, R., Graves, N., Griffin, M. A. S., Roberts, J. A., Swan, A. V., Cookson, B., & Taylor, L. (2001). The rate and cost of hospital-acquired infections occurring in patients admitted to selected specialties of a district general hospital in England and the national burden imposed. Journal of hospital infection, 47(3), 198-209.
Sikkens, J. J., van Agtmael, M. A., Peters, E. J., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M., Kramer, M. H., & de Vet, H. C. (2016). Assessment of appropriate antimicrobial prescribing: do experts agree?. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 71(10), 2980-2987.
Tunkel, A. R., Hasbun, R., Bhimraj, A., Byers, K., Kaplan, S. L., Scheld, W. M., ... & Zunt, J. R. (2017). 2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America’s clinical practice guidelines for healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 64(6), e34-e65.
World Health Organization. (2016). Health care-associated infections fact sheet. ND http://tinyurl. com/d2qwn9m (accessed 13 December 2016).
Ziaee, M., Vafaeenejad, R., Bakhtiari, G., Mostafavi, I., Gheibi, M., Fathabadi, J. M., & Ahmadi, M. T. (2017). National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System–based study in north eastern of Iran. Social Determinants of Health, 3(2), 64-9.
Zingg, W., Hopkins, S., Gayet-Ageron, A., Holmes, A., Sharland, M., Suetens, C., ... & Cairns, S. (2017). Health-care-associated infections in neonates, children, and adolescents: an analysis of paediatric data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control point-prevalence survey. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 17(4), 381-389.
Zingg, W., Holmes, A., Dettenkofer, M., Goetting, T., Secci, F., Clack, L., ... & Pittet, D. (2015). Hospital organisation, management, and structure for prevention of health-care-associated infection: a systematic review and expert consensus. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 15(2), 212-224.