Definition of language features
Language is an essential part of our lives. We speak a language so that we can communicate with others. Language features literary means analyzing language. Language feature helps you to understand what the writer is saying.
The writer usually uses different language techniques to convey his message. Further, the writers use techniques such as figures of speech, sentence structure, tone, and word choice.
List of Language features
It creates effective and efficient communication skills. It is a form of listening technique. You can use it effectively in counseling, training, and resolving conflicts. Moreover, in active listening, the listener should fully concentrate, understand, respond, and then remember what is being said.
Example: In a Biology class the teacher asks the student to open the ”origin and species book”. A student in the class hears the name of the book as ‘Oranges and Peaches book”. Here the student is not listening actively what his teacher is saying. This is a brief example of active listening.
An adjective is a word that describes the qualities of a noun.
Example: “She is happy”. In the sentence she is happy, we can see that the word happy is the adjective which describes the emotion of the girl.
There are three different degrees of adjectives:
A positive adjective is used as a normal adjective and only indicates the qualities of a people, places or everyday things.
For example: “I am funny” and ‘’ This is a good soup”. In these sentence, the word funny and good are the adjectives. Here these two words, funny and good are the positive adjective.
You can compare two things using a Comparative adjective.
For example: “Lakme lipsticks are better than Revlon lipsticks”.
“Thomas is funnier than Peter”.
You can compare three or more things using Superlative adjectives.
For example: “Lakme lipsticks are better than Revlon lipstick but the MAC lipsticks are the best.
Now after discussing the three degrees of Adjective, we will now discuss the 7 types of an adjective.Descriptive
Descriptive adjectives describe the nouns and the pronouns. Words like beautiful, silly, tall, annoying, loud and nice are all descriptive adjectives.
Moreover, these words add information and qualities in a sentence.
“The flowers have their own smell”. Here the sentence is stating a fact. This sentence states that the flowers or their smell are alike.
“The flowers have a smell”. Here the sentence is stating a fact. This sentence states that the flowers or their smell are like.“The beautiful flowers have a nice smell”. This sentence gives us a lot of information. In this sentence, you can see there are two descriptive adjectives.
“The beautiful flowers have a nice smell”. This sentence gives us a lot of information. In this sentence, you can see there are two descriptive adjectives.
“The cat is hungry,” or “The hungry cat.” In both cases, the word hungry is an adjective describing the cat.
It describes the quantity of something. When we represent a number or quantity of something then we use quantitative adjectives.
“How many children do you have?” “I only have one daughter.” In this sentence, “How many” is the quantitative adjective.
“Do you plan on having more kids?” “Oh yes, I want many children!”. In this sentence more and many are the quantitative adjectives.
“I can’t believe I ate that whole cake!”. In this sentence whole is a qualitative adjective.
It describes “which” noun or pronoun you are referring to. This adjective includes the words such as:
This — Refer to a singular noun close to you.
That — Refer to a singular noun far from you.
These — Refer to a plural noun close to you.
Those — Refer to a plural noun far from you.
“Which bicycle is yours?” “This bicycle is mine, and that one used to be mine until I sold it.”
These type of adjective show possession. It indicates to whom a thing belongs. Some of the common possessive adjective includes:
My — Belonging to me
His — Belonging to him
Her — Belonging to her
Their — Belonging to them
Your — Belonging to you
Our — Belonging to us
All these adjectives, except the word his, can only be used before a noun. You cannot say “That’s my,” you have to say “That’s my pen.” When you want to leave off the noun or pronoun being modified, use these possessive adjectives instead:
Mine, His, Hers, Theirs, Yours, and Ours
For example, If you say “That’s my” it will be incorrect, but if you will say, “That’s mine” this will be perfectly fine.
When you want to ask a question then you have to use Interrogative adjectives. Most importantly, a noun or a pronoun always follows them. Some of the examples of the interrogative adjective are:
Which – It is used when you have to make a choice between two things.
What – It is used to make a choice in general.
Whose – Here you can indicate that whose thing is that.
“Which song will you play on your wedding day?”
“What pet do you want to get?”
“Whose child is this?”
These adjectives describe specific members out of a group. They single out one or more individual items or people. Some of the common distributive adjectives include:
Each — Every single one of a group (used to speak about group members individually).
Every — Every single one of a group (used to make generalizations).
Either — One between a choice of two.
Neither — Not one or the other between a choice of two.
Any — One or some things out of any number of choices. This is also used when the choice is irrelevant, like: “it doesn’t matter, I’ll take any of them.”
These types of adjective are always followed by a noun or a pronoun they are modifying.
Some more examples are
“Every flower has their own smell”
“Which of these fruits did you like the most”?
Articles are used to describe which noun you are referring to. There are three types of an article:
A— A singular, general item.
An— A singular, general item. Use this before words that start with a vowel.
The— A singular or plural, specific item.
Some example of article as an adjective is:
“The elephants left huge footprints in the sand.”
“An elephant can weigh over 6,000 pounds!”
They are the words or phrases which modifies the meaning of an adjective, verb, or other adverb.
A verb, for example ‘She sings beautifully.’
An adjective, for example, ‘He is really interesting.’
Another adverb, for example ‘She walks very slowly.’
End in “-ly”Many adverbs end in “-ly”. If you are not sure of the part of speech a word would be, and it ends with “-ly”, it is probably an adverb.
Many adverbs end in “-ly”.
Examples include: Financially, Willfully, Abruptly, Endlessly, Firmly, Delightfully, Quickly, Lightly, Eternally, Delicately, Wearily, Sorrowfully, Beautifully, and Truthfully
Other examples of adverbs would be words that describe how something was done or the manner in which it was done. These would be words like: Uneasily, Weirdly, Cheerfully, Expertly, Wholeheartedly, Randomly, Brutally, Really, Briskly, Sloppily, and Wickedly.
Some adverb tells us that where the action has taken place. They are: Here, There, Everywhere, Somewhere, In, Inside, Underground, Out, Outside, Upstairs, and Downstairs.
Some adverbs tell us that when the action has taken place: Now, First, Last, Early, Yesterday, Tomorrow, Today, Later, Regularly, Often, Never, Monthly, Always, and Usually.
Some adverb tells us the level of the action: Very, Too, Almost, Also, Only, Enough, So, Quiet, Almost, and Rather
Now we will see some of the examples of an adverb in a sentence: I really don’t care; You simply don’t understand; I so want to go to the concert.
The repetition or the occurrence of the same word or letter at the starting of closely related words are Alliterations.
For example: “Kim’s kid’s keep kicking”.
“Mike’s microphone make much music”.
The apostrophe is a punctuation mark. It is used for several purposes in the English language. The apostrophe indicates possession. In addition to that, it also attaches to a noun and not to a possessive pronoun. Such as hers, its, theirs, ours.
Example: ‘Rosie’s cup’.
A descriptive technique compares one thing with the other thing. It uses ‘as’ or ‘like’.
Example: The tress stood as tall as towers.
It is also a descriptive technique. It names a person, thing or action as something else.
Example: The circus was a magnet for the children.
Hyperbole is used to give obvious exaggeration for rhetorical effect.
The sun scorched through the day.
It is more like a metaphor attributing human feelings to an object.
Example: The sun smiled at the hills, ready to begin a new day.
It is a type of personification where emotions are given to set an object or the weather. Here human feelings and responses are done to inanimate things or animals. Further, it is specially done in art and literature.
Example: The clouds crowded together suspiciously overhead as the sky darkened.
Here the words sound a little like they mean.
Example: The autumn leaves and twigs cracked and crunched underfoot.
Here the phrases are combined with two or more contradictory terms.
Example: There was a deafening silence
A language which is intended to create an emotional response is known as Emotive language.
Example: A heartbreaking aroma of death filled the air as he surveyed the devastation and destruction
Till here we have discussed the language features list and the language features meaning and examples. Now we will discuss the structural features.
Structural features are important in a language. They help in formulating a structure of the language. We all know that without a proper structure a language or a subject will lose its meaning. It will be meaningless to read a sentence without a proper structure.
The structure of a text refers to its shape as a whole. This is usually used in plotting events in a story, novel or play.
There are lists of structural features which can help us form a good sentence in a language:
Now we will show you list of structural techniques:
It is an indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. Allusion does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers. It is just a passing comment. In allusion the writer expects the reader to possess enough knowledge to spot the allusion and grasp its importance in a text.
Here the writers or the poets can turn the complex ideas and emotions into simple language. Now here the readers understand the complex ideas by comparing the writer’s or poet’s emotion to the references given by him.
“Don’t act like a Romeo in front of her.” – “Romeo” is a reference to Shakespeare’s Romeo, a passionate lover of Juliet.
An antagonist always stands opposite to a protagonist or the main character.
Conflict is a basic or main element of any plot. In a plot, the antagonist always stands alongside a protagonist. It is vital for the typical formula of a plot. The antagonist opposes the protagonist in his actions and thus the conflict arises.
Romeo and Juliet: the feuding Montagues and Capulets, predominantly Tybalt.
Allegory is a figure of speech. The characters, figures, and events describe the abstract ideas and principles. We use it in prose and poetry to tell a story with a purpose of teaching an idea and a principle or explaining an idea or a principle. The objective of its use is to preach some kind of a moral lesson.
A writer usually knows that if he will add allegory to his work then it will add different layers of meanings. Allegory makes their stories and characters multidimensional. It helps them make a meaning big in an aspect than it is literary means. With the help of Allegory, a writer can put forward their moral and political point of views. A careful study of an allegorical piece of writing can give us an insight into its writer’s mind as how he views the world and how he wishes the world to be.
The Tortoise and the Hare from Aesop’s Fables: From this story, we learn that the strong and steady win the race.
Ambiguity is a word, phrase, or statement which contains more than one meaning.
It lends a deeper meaning to a literary work. Here the writers give liberty to the readers to use their imagination to explore meanings.
Ambiguous words or statement can lead to confusion. It can also create unintentional humor.
It is ambiguous to say “I rode a black horse in red pajamas,” because it may lead us to think the horse was wearing red pajamas. The sentence becomes clear when it is restructured “Wearing red pajamas, I rode a black horse.”
The writer uses Anaphora in writing or a speech. He deliberately repeats the first part of the sentence in order to achieve an artistic effect.
Anaphora not only adds prominence to ideas but also adds rhythm to it and thus, making it more enjoyable to read and easier to remember. This technique catches the reader’s attention.
“Every day, every night, in every way, I am getting better and better” “My life is my purpose. My life is my goal. My life is my inspiration.”
An idiom is a set expression or a phrase comprises of two or more words. The readers understand the phrase something quite different from what individual words of the phrase would imply.
Writers and public speakers use idioms generously. The writer uses an idiom to elaborate their language, make it richer and spicier and help them in conveying indirect meanings to their intentional audience.
Here the writer uses abstract language to represent objects, actions, and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical senses.
It generates a vibrant and graphic presentation of a scene that appeals to as many of the reader’s senses as possible. It helps the reader’s imagination to imagine the characters and scenes in the literary piece clearly.
It was dark and dim in the forest. He whiffed the aroma of brewed coffee.
Here the writer uses words in such a way that their intended meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words.
The writer uses the irony deliberately in English literature. It makes a work of literature more interesting and forces the readers to use their imagination and understand the original meanings of the texts. Moreover, real life is full of ironical expressions and situations. Therefore, the use of irony brings a work of literature closer to the life.
The name of Britain’s biggest dog was “Tiny”.
“Oh great! Now you have broken my new camera.”
Here two or more ideas, places, characters and their actions are placed side by side in a narrative or a poem for developing comparisons and contrasts. It is an important
Writers use the literary technique of juxtaposition in order to surprise their readers and evoke their interest. Here they develop a comparison between two dissimilar things by placing them side by side. The comparison adds vividness to a given image, controls the pacing of a poem or a narrative and provides a logical connection between two various unclear concepts.
The white dove lay still on the ground of the bloody fields.
A metaphor is a figure of speech which makes a hidden or indirect comparison between two things that are unrelated but share some common characteristics. In other words, a similarity of two contradictory or different objects is made based on a single or some common characteristics.
It directly appeals to the senses of listeners or readers, sharps their imaginations to understand what is being communicated to them. Moreover, it gives a life-like quality to our conversations and to the characters of the fiction or poetry. Metaphors are also ways of thinking, offering the listeners and the reader’s fresh ways of examining ideas and viewing the world.
My brother was boiling mad.
The assignment was a breeze.
Here the writer uses symbols to signify ideas and qualities by giving them symbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense.
With the help of Symbolism, a writer adds double levels of meanings to his work. A literal one that is self-evident and the symbolic one who’s meaning is far deeper than the literal one. Symbolism in literature increases interest in readers as they find an opportunity to get an insight of the writer’s mind on how he views the world and how he thinks of common objects and actions, having broader effects.
The dove is a symbol of peace.
A red rose or red color stands for love or romance.
A writer uses Theme as the main idea or an underlying meaning of a literary work that may be stated directly or indirectly.
Theme fixes together various other essential elements of a narrative. A theme gives readers better understanding of the main character’s fights, experiences, discoveries, and emotions. It is because all of them are derived from them. Through themes, a writer tries to give his readers an insight into how the world works or how he or she views human life.
Frankenstein: dangerous knowledge, sublime nature, monstrosity, secrecy, literary texts.
A Christmas Carol: compassion and forgiveness, isolation, transformation, choices, time, family, memory, guilt.
Here the writer imposes animal attributes upon non-animal objects, humans, and events. On the other hand the humans, gods and other objects ascribe the animal features.
Zoomorphism means assigning a person, event or a deity with characteristics which are animalistic. While on the other hand anthropomorphism is ascribing human qualities to other objects, animals, and inhuman creatures in order to give an insight into their functions.
It is very helpful as effectively describes different characters. The purpose of using this technique is to create a figurative language and provide a comparison.
“In the shadow of Your wings, I used to rejoice…..If I take the wings of the dawn, and settle in the remotest part of the sea….” The Bible
Language features is a vast and detailed topic. This will help you in understanding the writing style of the writer as well as the language features. In addition, you can understand what the writer wants to express by the help of these techniques. In addition to this, using language features or language technique the writer usually makes deliberate attempts to engage the reader’s attention.
Most importantly, we have discussed the different structural techniques in the English language. This list of structural features in English will help you gather vast information of English language technique. This language features helps the reader to identify the different emotions.
Furthermore, we have discussed in detail the language features meanings and examples. This blog post will help you not only gather information on language features but also you can go through a long language.