Write an essay on "How has globalization been theorised from a geographical point of view? Assess the strengths and weaknesses of these theories".
The process of connecting different parts of the world with each other is known as Globalization. Depending upon the geographical conditions, globalization is responsible for the expansion of various cultural activities, political activities as well as economic activities taking place on an international level. With the help of globalization, the experiences of the people existing in any part of the world start resembling with each other, due to the movement of their ideas, goods, and knowledge, etc. across the globe. The globalization consists of various factors or in other words, we can say that globalization depends upon various sections like communication, travel, cultural popularity, political factors, economic factors, etc. different- different theories are also present for the complete description of globalization depending upon the geographical point of view.
In the present world, the terms of interconnectedness, coherent and stable cultures, etc., are becoming rare day by day. The successful process of globalization is connecting people of different origins of culture with each other and is responsible for the close relationship between them. The method of transforming the phenomenon working across the world shows the simultaneous transformation of the developed landscape is always being captured in the globalization. The globalization has a deep impact on the terms of culture. Different cultures at different-different locations or parts of the world show various experiences on the life and creation basis. It completely affects the embraces of professional and special discourses of the arts as well as the commodified of various cultural industries. The flow of ideas and various types of other practices from the other dominant societies become difficult to underestimate. According to the present situations or in the recent decades, the international economy is becoming more and more globalized day by day. It results to the vital trade according to the economic factors across the world. Microsoft is a well reputed American software company, which is one of the best examples out of the many other software companies working across the country and which mainly rely on the international trade in making a large amount of profit through their worldwide business (Straw, 2011). Many of the countries have removed the trade barriers like charging tariffs, taxes on import and export of goods, etc., which has directly influenced the globalization of various types of services and goods. This has also helped a lot in improving the relationship between the people of the different countries through the exchange of ideas and knowledge etc.
Economic globalization is responsible by providing help to a large number of corporations in moving their factories and any other type of jobs to the countries, where the economic development is slow or less. By using this type of techniques the lower wages are being paid by the corporations, due to the low standard of living and the other reason is the less development of the country. The company’s shifting towards countries under development has to face less problems arising due to the rules and many other safety measures of less developed country (Pooja, 2016). All these factors help the companies or corporations in lowering their cost/investment. All these factors also help the country by making the county’s economic market global. Globalization is mainly divided into eight different categories which are as discussed below: -
The theory of Liberalism is defined as a process of market-led extension of modernization and can be expressed as a result of human desires for the welfare of the political and economic welfare naturally. Various human drives are responsible for the derived transplanted connections for increasing the well-being of the freedoms available basically. All these factors help in connecting the people across the globe (Moravcsik, 2010). Different explanations come into the existence depending upon the various factors of business studies, the study of politics and law, the study of economics, etc.
Strength: Helps in the advancement of the technology, increases the information processing in the field of communication, transportation, etc. it also helps in enabling the market as well as the liberal democracy.
Weakness: Social forces have to face problems due to the neglecting nature of the supporters. All the people of the country did not participate actively in the globalization process.
Theory of Political Realism gives us a description of the conflicts between the different-different states of the country. Various problems are faced depending on the different state powers. The power of the large states of the country makes the globalization antithetical due to the role of the state in the development of global relations. In this step, the globalization affects the various factors like cultural, ecological, psychological, economic, etc. Many other relations related to the state power affect the process of globalization on the basis of gender, class, and culture (Morgenthau, 1978).
Strength: Has a large impact on the economic dimensions. It is also responsible for the production of various resources.
Weakness: Structural inequalities are harder to explain appropriately. There is less support for the globalization generators.
The theory of Marxism mainly deals with factors like production, social emancipation, social distribution taking place through capital transcendence. Depending upon the information provided by the Marxists, the chances of making the profit increase due to the connectivity of the trans-world, which is the only responsible of globalization. Both the liberal and political explanations of globalization are incorrect according to Marxists and it evaluates all the capital accumulation globally while giving a restricted power account (Sewell & Woods, 2000).
Strength: Provides new ways of creating social movements. It also helps in creating new relations on the basis of subordination and dominance.
Weakness: For the interstate competition, people developed various global weapons for the capitalist ends.
Theory of Constructivists tells us about the construction of the social world mentally, by making the use of different languages, symbols, interpretations, images, etc. This type of globalization is the result of Anthropology, media of sociology and studies, humanities, etc. Information being shared between the people existing in the different locations of the world is responsible for creating new ideas, interaction on a social basis etc. The structural inequality issues and many other power hierarchies are neglected in the theory of constructivist (Culatta, 2015).
Strength: This theory provides the ability of built-in apolitical. Mainly focuses on the shaping of the process of mental experience. It also neglects the structural inequality.
Weakness: The theory depends upon the construction on an intersubjective basis. Mental experiences are made on the basis of us and their groups.
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The theory of Postmodernism mainly describes the structural power significance on the basis of knowledge, identities, and norms. The method used in this theory for understanding the various theories of the society is done in the terms of power-knowledge. This type of knowledge rationalism is responsible for the creation of cultural imperialism. It is almost the same as the theory of Marxism and it exposes the social conditions, which are in the favor of globalization. Different- different methods being used in this theory are unable to reducing the several modes of consciousness. According to this theory, the ideation and the material are interconnected to each other with some sort of force, which are not enough in actual (Hoffman, 2008).
Strength: The theory provides logics to deal with the cultural imperialism. It also helps by providing various methods to work beyond the limits of liberalist theories.
Weakness: The theory is unable to focus on the problems related to globalization per se. Material forces provided by this theory are not able to reduce the impact of various material forces.
Theory on Feminism mainly focuses on the construction of femininity as well as on the masculinity. All the theories discussed earlier on globalization are able to identify the various dynamics related to the connectivity in terms of state, identity, capital, etc. In the other theories of globalization the dynamics beyond the supra-territorial can easily be identified. On the global basis, the overall shape and order is responsible for the molding of biological sex for the course of history. The status of women is the main concern, particularly for the subordination men structure. In globalization, women are the most silenced during global communication (Moffitt, 2016).
Strengths: Provides main concern regarding to the status. It mainly emphasizes the construction on the social basis.
Weakness: It mainly concerns according to the status. It only provides structural subordination, particularly for men.
Theory of Trans-formationalism helps in creating a reflection of increased factors of incorrectness in the various economic, cultural and political factors related to the world responsible for shared social space. The theory of trans-formationalism can also be defined as the process of transforming the spatial organization of transactions and many other social relations, which are expressed in the form of network activities, power and interaction. Besides to this, an analytical framework is easily constructed on the three parts, which are skeptic, transformational and the third one is hyper globalist. By the interconnection of these three parts, the process of globalization can be implemented effectively and efficiently.
Strength: it provides the method of transformation in a spatial organization depending upon the conditions of several social relations. It also provides different transformation categories for the context of globalization.
Weakness: Power shifting based on the political factor is completely based on the interest of the organization. It presents a complicated topology for the globalization process.
Theory of Eclecticism provides the facility of accumulation of surplus. It also provides the method to completely monetize the capital economy. A Facility of the accumulation of the money is available in this theory of the globalization. Various methods are provided in the theory for the transfer purpose of the surplus. The surplus is transferred from the weaker towards the powerful. It is the mode responsible for the production of the pervasive and perpetual regarding to the distribution of surplus. This type of theory is mainly initiated for the competition between the firm and an individual (Hjorland & Nicolaisen, 2006). The competition also occurs along with the structural boundaries of race, class and gender. For the review guide regarding to the common affairs, people formulate and reviews the rule guide for the implementation purpose. With the help of the objective method, various truths come into existence and its objects are valid from any place and at any time and also are valid for each and every type of person. In actuality, the degradation related to environmental factors and other equitable relations based on the category of gender are neglected by the process of globalization.
Strengths: Objective truths are valid at any time, at any place and for every type of person. The rationalism is instrumentalist according to the particular theory. Besides to the economic and political forces the facility of ideation and material elements.
Weakness: Depends upon the structural lines of race, class and the gender in certain circumstances. In the absence of the regulatory apparatus, mode of operation cannot be operated (Kumar, 2013).
Conclusion: The above discussed are some of the theories of globalization, according to the geographical point of view. Globalization plays an important role in the development part of a developing country. The globalization helps in increasing the trade at an international level. It provides various benefits for a company working in more than one country. It helps in depending greatly or excessively on the global economy. It provides the facility of free movement of goods, ideas, knowledge, capital, etc. from one source to the other. It directly influenced the wealth factor of the country under development. Therefore, it is the responsibility of each and every individual of the country to participate actively in the globalization task in the better development of the country.
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Hoffman, L. (2008). Postmodern Culture & Postmodern Theory. Differentiating Between Postmodern Culture & Postmodern Theory. Retrieved from http://www.postmodernpsychology.com/main_topics/culture_and_theory.htm
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