Bio-terrorism Weapon

Bioterrorism: Can you stop the outbreak?
1. Explain what a biological weapon is (in the context of Microbiology)?
2. What features make some bacteria suitable for use as a biological weapon?
3. You have been asked to head a counter-bioterrorism unit in the Government. What measures would you propose to prevent and protect the country in the event of a bioterrorism attack?


1.     Explain what a biological weapon is (in the context of Microbiology)? 

The Biological weapon (BW)—is often described as a germ warfare—which is the use of the spreading of the biological toxins or infecting the large masses through the infectious agents for examples bacteria, viruses, along with attacking through the fungi with the sole purpose to harm or kill along with affecting the incapacitate humans and also intending to harm the environment by harming as an act of war (Inglesby, 2009). The terminology of the Biological weapons is often described as a "bio-weapons" and even called as a "biological threat agents" and lastly as a "bio-agents" are the living organisms in terms of the replicating entities or the virus agents which are harmful to the survival.  It reproduces and often replicates in terms of the host victims. Considering the entomological (insect) is the infected warfare which is one of the biological weapons. Often this type of the warfare is described as a part of the nuclear warfare along with the chemical warfare, which adds up to the biological warfare contributing to the NBC which defined as the military acronym in terms of the nuclear, biological,  along with the consideration of the chemical warfare making a use of the weapons in terms of the mass destruction (WMDs). Looking at it none is considered to be a conventional weapon and is often used as an explosive, kinetic, or incendiary potential (Pletzer, 2016).
One can effectively use the mode of biological weapons as a way to strategies or use it against the tactical advantage in terms of defeating the enemy or creating threat zones or simply using it as an actual deployment. Like some of the chemical weapons, there are also biological weapons which can be used within the area of the denial weapons. Such biological agents can be lethal or non-lethal, and can threaten dire consequences for the single individual and can be used against the group of people and can even defeat an entire population. It may be used in terms of the developed, acquired and can be considered in the case of the stockpiled or deployed by nation states. All this can be considered within the act of the bioterrorism. 

2. What features make some bacteria suitable for use as a biological weapon? 

The types of the bacteria which can be used as a biological weapon are the Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax), Clostridium botulinum (botulism), Francisella tularensis subsp. Tularensis (valley fever) and the last Yersinia pestis (the plague). These fall into the pathogenic bacteria category (Henderson, 2009). The CDC considers the deadly spread of the four pathogens under the category A and are considered as high priority pathogens and have an advantage of easy to spread, high mortality rates, and has a potential damage to the cause of panic which requires a special treatment in terms of the response procedures. the destructive biological pathogens should be sued with an element of the detecting the biological pathogens which have the following criteria such as Quantitative abilities, Multiplexing capabilities, High specificity and finally, has a high sensitivity.
In terms of the traditional detection methods, often the use of the microscopic identification in terms of the morphological characteristics has an intended difference of the given bacteria along with the enzymatic tests and has a significance of the staining methods which can use as less specific in terms of time-consuming and inefficient. While considering singleplex assays which shown as necessary to screen in terms of the possible pathogenic bacteria. In terms of defining the Multiplex assays are ideal genetic markers and can blend with the multiplexing. In defining the Ribosomal RNA which denoted to the genes code for the structural RNA molecules and includes the essential biological processes and has to minimize the mutations, considering it as a good candidate for the use of the biological pathogen detection. Within the genes, it is related to blending with the toxicity of the organism which can make up the pathogen detection array and can be used with regards to the multiple genetic markers. It is ideal to be considered as a screening for the pathogenic organism and can be related to the confidence in terms of the detection and the identification. In the research field, multiplex assays help researchers which in distinguish between the toxic along with the genetically modified in terms nonpathogenic strains (Strauss, 2008).

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3. You have been asked to head a counter-bioterrorism unit in the Government. What measures would you propose to prevent and protect the country in the event of a bioterrorism attack?

As a head of the counter bioterrorism unit within the Government, I would suggest taking efficient measures which can help in safeguarding the security of the Homeland by countering the bioterrorism attack and for this public health safety net. It would be done through the first responders considered in preventing the bioterrorism event would be public health officials and health care agents. They need to be trained and specialized in detecting such widespread. The medical providers and the labs need to be well equipped and should work on the detection on an immediate basis. The speed of the spread and the detection along with the controlling time needs to be swift in actions.
The biological weapons are available freely and the scientific literature is widely available. Measures should be taken to curb the access to such pathogens and should safeguard such biological labs (Filloux, 2013).
The use of the preparation part and the need to invest in the involve research and development on along with the prerequisite tools and approaches. All this would include the use of the appropriate modeling techniques along with the use of the bioforensics and applicability of the defining threats, specific and should visionary needs to use the broad-spectrum antibiotic One needs to also look over the rapid vaccine fielding. During the biological warfare, it is required to use and reinforce health and agriculture response system which needs to be inline with the consistent communications plan. Considering the people who are exposed due to the imitation of the biological widespread, it is recommended to have a specific protocol for treatment along with the agenda of the decontamination. For the environmental exposures, as a head of the government, I would recommend a swift disposal and decontamination plan to minimize the spread (De Rycke, 2001).


De Rycke, J., & Oswald, E. (2001). Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT): a bacterial weapon to control host cell proliferation?. FEMS microbiology letters, 203(2), 141-148.
Filloux, A. (2013). Microbiology: a weapon for bacterial warfare. Nature, 500(7462), 284.
Henderson, D. A., Inglesby, T. V., Bartlett, J. G., Ascher, M. S., Eitzen, E., Jahrling, P. B., ... & O'toole, T. (2009). Smallpox as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Jama, 281(22), 2127-2137.
Inglesby, T. V., Henderson, D. A., Bartlett, J. G., Ascher, M. S., Eitzen, E., Friedlander, A. M., ... & Parker, G. (2009). Anthrax as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Jama, 281(18), 1735-1745.
Pletzer, D., Coleman, S. R., & Hancock, R. E. (2016). Anti-biofilm peptides as a new weapon in antimicrobial warfare. Current opinion in microbiology, 33, 35-40.
Strauss, E. (2008). Possible new weapon for insect control. Science, 280(5372), 2050-2050.

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