You should research and write about the topic "ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS"



The process in wastewater treatment is of sufficient amount of importance in maintaining and promoting cleanliness in the environment. Untreated waste from factories and other industrial sources affect the overall hygiene of the water body and threaten marine biodiversity. It is important for the industrial wastes to undergo sufficient amount of treatment before its disposal in water bodies. Treatment of wastewater involves sufficient amount of stages and steps necessary to be performed for ensuring overall effectiveness in treatment patterns. The general steps of wastewater treatment mainly include filtration, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration. The main process in the study deals with proper representation and analysis of wastewater parameters and the mode of specifications to be used for performing necessary treatment process. The problem statement in the study deals with problems in water treatment process.

Water Treatment plant 

Executive summary

Water is the primary requisites and requirements for survival of mankind. Water for the consumption of the human beings is obtained from surface water. It is important for surface water to undergo treatment process before its final distribution. Surface water sources may involve water from underground sources or from rivers. Sufficient amount of treatment procedures are necessary to be used for achieving maximum efficiency. 

B. Chapter 1 Technical Summary of the project planning period and population projections 

Effluent characteristics and essential parameters
The quantity and nature of effluents in wastewater are mentioned below:
?Suspended solids of 100 mg/l
?pH value ranges from 5.5 to 9.0
?Temperature ranging and not exceeding above the range of 5 degrees
The effluent characteristics and properties are analyzed and implemented for maximum value in work process and daily work functions. Adeleye et al (2016) commented that the effluents determined are to analyze based on its effluent characteristics for increasing overall value to the quality of the treatment process. The technical process is important and necessary to be properly developed for maximum possible value to the quality of waste treatment. The technical development process in wastewater treatment is important and highly used for increasing workflows and assuring maximum services to the quality of waste treatment.
Population forecasting is one of the most important and essential factors necessary to be predicted for designing the water supply systems (Ali, I., 2014). It is one of the most important and essential necessities for predicting the amount of population in a specific amount of time. As per the given data, the amount of population at 0 years is about 45,709. The rate of growth is about 5% per annum. Increase in population can be estimated by experimental increase method, the formula for this method is given as follows:
P=Po e^kt
K indicates the amount of growth of population per year
T indicates the time period 
Based on the formula, the amount of growth of population per year can be calculated.
suggests the amount of growth of population with the passage of time. Based on the calculations, it is observed the growth of population is of 58, 692. The population amount for the next five years is predicted to undergo growth up to 75,362. The growth rate of the population up to 20 years is predicted to be about 1, 24, 251. The growth rate of populations at about 5% growth rate stands as per the figure 1. The design for water treatment is necessary to be designed for supporting populations for 1,24, 251 at 20 years. In many areas and conditions,  the demand for freshwater is likely to increase. As a result of changing climate and scarcity of freshwater, the supply of freshwater goes on decreasing. Apart from that, increase and rapid development of human population with the passage of time, increase in the amount of land use and energy generation places a tremendous amount of pressure on limited resources of water.
Arriaga et al. (2016) mentioned that the water supply and support capability must be designed for future population. It is therefore essential and important for population forecast in order to design water supplies.  

Water quantity estimation

The quantity of water, which are necessary to be estimated is necessary for municipal usages for supporting the demand of existing population and future population. The estimation of water quantity is determined by two main factors are stated as follows:
?Rate of water consumption which is per capita demand per person per day   
?The amount of population to be served
The factors affecting per capita demand are stated as follows
?Size of the town/city: The size of town or city strongly impacts on per capita water demand. Per capita demand for bigger towns and cities are greater than small towns 
?Industrialization: Presence of sufficient amount of industries and sufficient amount of urbanization in the area leads to increase and growth in water supply requirements
?Climate: Conditions and the nature of the climate affect water demand. Presence of warm weather and humid conditions requires sufficient water requirement(Awaleh&Soubaneh2014)
The per capita water demand for population is given as 150 gallons/day/person
The water quantity demand is calculated as follows:
Water quantity = Total amount of population * per capita water demand
The number of water demands for supporting the population is mentioned in figure number 2. The water represented in gallons. After 20 years the water demand will increase to 18,63,7650. The maximum amount of water demand requirements is estimated for about 20 years period for maximum efficiency. The minimum water demand is up to 6856350. 
The water treatment plant must be properly designed to withstand maximum pressure from an increase in population.

Recommendations for water treatment plant

The main recommendations for improving efficiency at the water treatment plant are mentioned below:
?The particulars for wastewater treatment and dimensions of wastewater treatment must be effectively designed for supporting populations for 20 year growth period
?The sewers must be properly designed for ensuring maximum  amount of efficiency

C. Chapter 2 Water Treatment Plant Option A

As a result of the high cost of drinking and lack of availability of water from all sources, it is essential for municipalities and other sources to use and adopt treated surface water. Sufficient amounts of workflow and related technical process are improved and developed. Treatment of conventional and surface water involves a significant amount of steps necessary to be ensured for ensuring maximum and overall effectiveness in treatment patterns (Merzari, Andreottola & Fiori 2016).The general steps of waste treatment mainly include filtration, sedimentation filtration, coagulation, and flocculation. Proper representation and analysis of wastewater parameters are necessary and important to be identified for ensuring maximum productivity. The mode of specifications for treatment is important for performing necessary treatment process. Proper tools and necessary techniques are devised for offering the maximum amount of treatment to surface water. Surface water mainly consists of following elements stated as follows:
?High dosage of suspended solids
?Sufficient amount of bacteria, virus, and algae
?Organic constituent 
?Suspended matter small in quantity
Presence of organic constituent and organic matter are responsible for responsible for producing relatively bad taste and strong odor. The treatment process undergoes various modes of necessary treatment process each directed to remove specific waste matter. The necessary steps for wastewater treatment are mentioned below:
?The first involves collection of surface water from its sources, the surface water to be treated is collected from relevant sources
?As per figure 1, the first step in treatment process involves coagulation. In this process, coagulation is performed with the help of certain chemicals. Certain amount of chemicals  are added in the wastewater to make the particles relatively heavier
?Coagulation helps in suspension of particles. Sufficient amount of waste particles in the wastewater are concentrated 
?The next step involves flocculation. It is the next step to coagulation. It is performed with the help of rotating blades. It helps in concentration of matter and helps in settling of foreign matters and promotes early settlement
?The next stage involves sedimentation. It is processed after flocculation. It consists of the settlement of particles in a silting basin.  Proper detention time is selected depending upon the type of waste and its characteristics. The average detention time ranges from 30 minutes to 1 hour depending upon waste characteristics. 
?The last stage involves filtration. It is used to filter fine particles and waste. Normally slow sand filter or rapid sand filter is recommended for the treatment process. Normally slow sand filter is recommended for treatment process
?The following steps involve further purification such as Ozone or reverse osmosis methods for further treatment depending upon the requirements

Figure 2.1: Flow diagram for surface wastewater treatment
Surface water is one of the most important and essential sources which may be used by mankind
Studies from figure 1, represents the flow diagram representation for flow diagram for treating surface water. The figure shows series of different steps to be followed for treatment. 
The above flow diagram indicates various stages and steps to be included for surface water treatment. 
?Surface water may consist of rivers, lakes or ponds. 
?The raw water is extracted from the river. After extraction, it is passed through screening where coarser particles are essentially separated from the water. 
?The next essential step consists of pre-chlorination. In this stage, a certain amount of chlorine is added to the water.
?The water is passed to the next stage which involves coagulation or stages of rapid mixing. In the process of coagulation, coagulants are added to the water for accumulating all smaller particles.
?The small particles get accumulated and become heavier. Normally, alum solution serves as essential coagulant. The amount of alum solution necessary is determined from jar tests. Jar tests give essential results regarding the optimum amount of alum necessary for offering maximum efficiency.
?Normally coagulation is essentially performed in rapid mixing tanks. The water is then transferred to its next stage for flocculation. 
?Flocculation involves slow mixing. The water after this process goes for clarification. The water after its clarification gets for filtration. 
?Filtration is mainly acquired through rapid sand filtration. In this process presence of any particles are eliminated. 
?After its elimination, another set of chlorine is added which is known as post chlorination. After post chlorination, it gets stored in a proper storage or overhead tanks to further use for supply and distributions.
?The concepts related to post and pre chlorination can be used based on the types and the concepts of wastewater. 

D. Chapter 3 Water Treatment Plant, Option Treatment Groundwater treatment

Water from groundwater is retrieved from aquifers and previous layers from the ground. The groundwater treatment procedure encounters similar treatment procedures with that of other units. The prime importance process in groundwater treatment consists of the screening process. The water is drawn from groundwater sources such as impervious layers of the ground. Underground consists of underground strata, from which water is withdrawn and utilized for various purposes. As per figure number 2, it is seen that the first stage consists of preliminary stages necessary for water treatment. It is essential and highly important to design the capacity as per the growth of population. Data from table mainly indicates the growth rate of the population with the passage of time duration. The demand for water is represented by average demand, maximum demand, and minimum water demand. The maximum daily demand is calculated by multiplying average demand with 2. The minimum amount of demand is calculated as 2/3s of average demand. The process in groundwater treatment consists of the screening process. The water is drawn from groundwater sources such as impervious layers of the ground. Underground consists of underground strata, from which water is withdrawn and utilized for various purposes. As per figure number 2, it is seen that the first stage consists of preliminary stages necessary for water treatment. It is essential and highly important to design the capacity as per the growth of population. Data from table mainly indicates the growth rate of the population with the rate of the populations' sources. Based on the amount of population and water demand, the sewer and the pipe for transferring media are done the growth of population. A similar case of wastewater, the sewers is designed for handling peak populations and its demands.
?The next stage involves flocculation and coagulation, the following stages deal with essential stages such as filtration. The filtration consists of slow and rapid sand filter in the whole process
?The following stages consists of  Underground consists of underground strata, from which water is withdrawn and utilized for various purposes
?The following next process consists of chlorination  and finally storage in respective tanks Similar case of wastewater, the sewers are designed for handling peak populations and its demands
The process associated with involves treatment of polluted water from the ground by removing sources of any major pollutants (Jinet al. 2015). Wastewater treatment involves elimination of any major contaminants from the groundwater and makes it essentially suitable for consumption. The process associated with groundwater treatment mainly consists of different series and steps for removing any major pollution sources. Results largely indicate that about one-fourth to about 50% of groundwater is retrieved for drinking and other household purposes. The source of groundwater is obtained from essential sources such as dug wells, bore wells. Bore wells and other sources are obtained and are used for groundwater pollution.

AutoCAD figure 3.1: Flow diagram for waste water treatment for ground water
(Source: Learner)
The procedures followed for the treatment of groundwater are mentioned with the help of flowchart. The steps and techniques for retrieving groundwater and final treatment are mentioned as follows:
?The water is obtained from aquifers and other sources. The water is obtained from deep water levels from the groundwater. Submersible pumps and other mechanisms are used to derive water from underground water sources.
?The water consists of sufficiently large amounts of impurities and organic matter related particles. The next stage in the process involves passing the wastewater by means of  primary and secondary basins 
?The secondary sources mainly consists of secondary basins for offering treatment and removal of impurities from the waste
?After passing through primary and secondary sources, the wastewater is allowed to pass through filters. In the process presence of an insufficient amount of any vegetable or organic matter. Presence of any residual organic matter is eliminated by sand filters. Any organic matter is removed by the presence of any filter layers. The layers of filtration are offered to obtain clean water devoid of any impurities.
?The sludge obtained from primary and secondary basins are kept in sludge thickening tanks. The waste product in form of sludge is used and utilized for waste farming. 
?The clean treated water is kept and stored in reservoirs for use. The next stage involves storage and distribution of clean water for other distribution purposes

Wastewater Treatment Plant

Executive Summary

The process involved in wastewater treatment is different from conventional wastewater treatment. The wastewater may consist of several micro organisms, fungus and bacteria. It is important to analyze and remove this constituents from the wastewater so that, It can be disposed in the water body. Waste water treatment involves biological or conventional treatment. The waste water is also reticulated for better efficiency. 
To be continued...


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