Leading is the fourth step in the process of management. Without leading the management process is incomplete. Leading involves the formal and informal sources of influence that helps a manager for inspiring an action that is taken by others. If the manager is termed as an effective leader, their subordinates will be enthusiastic in attaining the organizational goals and objectives.
The behavioral sciences have also made contributions in understanding this function of management. The researches that have been conducted by various scholars in terms of managerial job attitude helps in providing information that how a manager can effectively lead a subordinate (Schaltegger,2017). There are various theories of leadership that have been proposed in management like the Trait Theories, Behavioral theories, Contingency Theories, and Transformational Leadership Theories. All these theories possess different aspects of a leader in terms of leading the subordinates (Huang, 2015). But if we talk about the theories that show its relevance is management is the trait theory and the Behavioral theories in comparison with other theories of Leadership. The trait theory of Leadership focuses on the traits of an individual and believes that people are born with certain qualities that make an individual a great leader. These qualities include a sense of responsibility, creativity, intelligence and the values. On the other hand, behavioral theory focus on the concept of "leaders are made not born"
The findings that have identified from the interview that has been conducted with Mr. Ian Steep, a senior learning support advisor in Victoria University. After interviewing with him we have got the summary that Mr. IAN also believes in the traits of leader as for the question "What things do you look for a person who leads you” he said that the person should be confident, should be enthusiastic and always have the sense of responsibility to take the team together are all from the Trait Theory of Leadership, which shows that the present managers also believe in the managerial theories and imply these theories in the real world (Kim, 2017). As a mentor, the qualities that he described in himself is that he always takes all his colleagues together in a team, by resolving their conflicts which shows that he is having a sense of responsibility , which makes him a good leader .
The analysis that we find out by making a comparison with the knowledge that we have gained from books and the practical interview that we have with Mr. Ian is that the books and the study materials provide an overview of the theories (Doppelt, 2017). The traits should be there in a leader or a person should possess the behavior which differentiates him/her from others but in a practical scenario, the leader has to make decisions as per the situations that are happening in an organization .Like in case of conflict Mr. Ian as a leader will listen to the subordinates and find out the best possible way of for the solution so that the conflicting situations will be resolved on time.
It involves measuring the actual performance from the defined standards. Controlling involves three steps which include (1) establishment of standards, (2) comparison with the actual performance in terms of standards, and (3) taking corrective action when needed (Kerzner, 2017). The performance measurement will be done in many ways that depend on the standards of performance which will include financial reports, sales performance, customer service satisfaction reports and performance appraisals. The managerial function of controlling does not mean that the managers will control the subordinates by manipulating their personalities, values or emotions. But this function is concerned about the managerial role in terms of taking corrective actions for the accomplishment of organizational objectives (Morschett, 2015). Controlling also involves the understanding of deviations from the standards in terms of budgeting and performance.
The findings that have been identified on the basis of interview in terms of controlling function of management is that Mr IAN on the question of “How do you achieve goals by working with subordinates “, he replied that as he is in education field so the standards over here is measured in terms of performance of students . He stated that on a Trimester basis he made the standards, and at the end of every trimester they evaluate the performance in comparison with the actual standards (Kinicki, 2014). If the performance is up to the standards , then they will set high standards for the next trimester , abut on the other hand if the performance of the students is below standards , they conduct the meetings with the lecturer's and coordinators and find out the possible solution for meeting the standards and for achieving better results.
The analysis that we have derived from the findings and the proposed theory of this function of management is that the controlling will be achieved on the basis of the steps that have been mentioned in the concept of controlling as from the interview we also find the answer from Mr. Ian on the basis of controlling theory that the standards have been set initially and afterwards the comparison has been done with the set standards and then the possible plan of action will be made for achieving the standards.
To conclude the report on the basis of analysis and findings, it is considered that these functions of management are the best way in terms of describing the manager roles and responsibility (Daft, 2016). The theories of these functions that we have read in the textbooks are somewhat realistic but in practical scenario the manager has to take decisions as per the organizational setting as every organization is differ in one way or other. As in this report Mr. Ian is a good leader but he has to make decisions as per the university policies and guidelines in which he is working. So, the managerial theories just provide the guidelines, but not provide the way and managers have to have to make their own ways.
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