Summary of Buddhism

Offer a brief summary of Buddhism. What seemed the most interesting, important, unique or questionable, etc. Explain your thinking. What areas raise questions or difficulties for you, and why? What has been the impact of Euro-centered colonialism on this (set of) religion(s) Offer two or more quotations from the sacred texts.

Introduction

Buddhism is a religion that was founded by Siddhartha Gautama known as The Buddha more than 2500 years ago in India. Near about 470 million followers are following the religion of Buddhism (Keown 2016). The religion has historically been most prominent in East and Southeast Asia, but its influence is growing in the west. Buddhism originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia.

Key facts about Buddhism

Followers of Buddhism don’t acknowledge a supreme god or deity. Founder of the religion, Buddha, is considered an extraordinary man, but not a god (Weber et al., 2000). The word Buddha means enlightened. They believe that path to enlightenment is attained by utilizing mortality, meditation, and wisdom. Buddhist usually meditate because they believe it helps awaken truth. There are many philosophies and interpretations within Buddhism, making it a tolerant and evolving religion. Some scholars don't recognize Buddhism as an organized religion, but rather, a way of life or a spiritual tradition (Hermann, A.2015).
Buddha's most important teachings, known as The Four Noble Truths, are essential to understanding the religion. Collectively, these principles explain why humans hurt and how to overcome suffering.
The Four Noble Truths, Which Buddha Taught, are:
•    The truth of suffering (dukkha)
•    The truth of the cause of suffering (samudaya)
•    The truth of the end of suffering (nirhodha)
•    The truth of the path that frees us from suffering (magga)

Most interesting, important or unique fact about Buddhism.

The interesting part is that in Buddhism they can worship either from home or temple. And the most important is that they have to follow the teaching of Buddha and they have to follow the Four Noble Truths. Buddhism embraces the concept of karma the law of cause and effect which is true (Ng, E 2016). Buddhism encourages its people to avoid self-indulgence but also self-denial. Which is also an important part of Buddhism religion.

Attainment of enlightenment

Aim: to attain final liberation called Nibbana.
Instruments: mind and body (Nama-rupa)
Procedure: follow the Noble eight-fold path, and that is
1.    Right view - do wholesome deeds
2.    Right intention - non-delusion
3.    Right speech - don’t abstain 
4.    Right action - abstain from killing
5.    Right livelihood - avoid corrupt means of livelihood.
6.    Right effort - sustaining of wholesome states.
7.    Right mindfulness - a contemplation of body, feelings, mind, and mind-objects.
8.    Right concentration - abandoning of five hindrances namely lust, ill-will, etc.

Difficulties to follow the Buddhism.

According to their faith and belief, and according to their facts, it has been mentioned that Buddhist monks, or bhikkus, follow a strict code of conduct, which include celibacy. Which according to my perception is somewhat difficult to accept celibacy (Paudel et al., 2017). In a way to follow all the noble truth, one should abstain from doing marriage. Celibacy means the state of abstaining from marriage and sexual relation. So for me, it is somewhat difficult to avoid this biological needs although many are there who are doing so for the sake of achieving full enlightenment.
The major vehicle for achieving enlightenment is meditation, touted by both Buddhists and alternative-medicine gurus as a potent way to calm and comprehend minds. So this insight imputed to medication are questionable. Medication the brain research Francisco Varela told in 2001 in the book of Zen and Brain that Buddhist doctrine of anatta, which holds that the self is an illusion.

Impact of Euro-centered colonialism on Buddhism religion.

In absolute terms, there is more European production of written material on Buddhism than ever before although the volume was already high in the later nineteenth century supported by Franklin 2008. After Euro-Centered colonialism linearity in publication and practice is found (Bilimoria et al., 2015).
A new development like new packages of evening course, urban meditation centers are opened. According, to Cirklova 2012 the impact of Euro-centered colonialism on Buddhism religion was they are increasingly becoming as an established religious identity within European countries, firstly with the arrival of substantial migrant groups from traditionally Buddhist Countries and secondly as European converts struggle with how to bring up their children Carlson et al., 2016).
It was found that only who have converted understand Buddhism as religion and of those only some are keen to transmit it, while others take an Anabaptist position, leaving their children free to choose an adult. Impact on the Sanskrit language also noticed.

Buddha Quotes on truth and spirituality.

To conquer oneself is a greater task than conquering others.
Purity or impurity depends on oneself. No one can purify another.

Buddha quotes on the Mind

There is nothing as disobedient as an undisciplined mind, and there is nothing so obedient as a disciplined mind.
Nothing can harm you as much as your thoughts unguarded.

Conclusion

In the end, it can be concluded that Buddhism is a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama. It is most prominent in East and Southeast Asia. Its influence is growing in the west also. As a result, it has impacted European countries also. Due to the Euro-centered colonialism, this religion of Buddhism has increased in the west also, due to the effort of Europe it gains more popularity, and many are also converted. As in this religion mainly there is four noble truth to follow and it is the key to understand the religion in the best manner.

References

Weber, M. (2000). The religion of India: The sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Keown, D. (2016). Buddhism and bioethics. Springer.
Hermann, A. (2015). 1 "Facts of the world." Asian Religions, Technology, and Science, 15, 11.
Ng, E. (2016). Buddhism and cultural studies: A profession of faith. Springer.
Paudel, A., & Dong, Q. (2017). The Discrimination of Women in Buddhism: An Ethical Analysis. Open Access Library Journal, 4(04), 1.
Carlson, E. C. (2016). Chapter nine identifying and transforming white colonial settler epistemes in mainstream social work: Towards anti-colonial social work. International Indigenous Voices in Social Work, 169.
Bilimoria, P. (2015). Philosophical orientalism in comparative philosophy of religion: Hegel to Habermas (& Zîzêk).

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