Physical Characteristics on Sociology

Question 1

Define both race and ethnicity.
Answer:
Race: Race divides the people based on various physical characteristics, for instance, genetic ancestry. It includes the common genetic traits, and it results generally due to geographical locations or the mixing of different racial groups, that results into various skin colors face designs, and others (Jacobs and Bowles, 1988). 
Ethnicity: This is defined on the basis of common nationality and common culture. It relates to the cultural richness that comes from any country and or tribe. Ethnicity shares common traits, religious motivation and rituals, and past and present culture (Jacob and Bowles, 1988). 

Question 2

Define both stereotypes and discrimination.
Answer:
Stereotypes: This is the oversimplified method to judge someone or something which is outside one’s experience and is considered different (Patterson and Phillip, 1991). For example, categorizing male as powerful and independent is stereotyping as every man is not powerful or independent. The most common stereotyping can be found in the case of sex and race, where, individual from particular race is considered smart and mature than other races. 
Discrimination: According to the International Human Rights Law, discrimination means unequal treatment to someone that result into harm. Discrimination can be at workplace, during any agreements, or in providing any facility. The common ground for discrimination are age, disability, ethnicity, gender, marital status, national origin, race, religion and sexual orientation (Banton, 1994).

Question 3

Provide a short summary of each of the theories surrounding Prejudice including: Scapegoat Theory, Authoritarian Personality Theory, Culture Theory and Conflict Theory.
Answer:
Scapegoat Theory: The theory suggests that during the time of conflicts or any economic despair, people do not like to blame themselves, instead they search for someone who could be blamed for all the miss-happenings (Girard, 1986).
Authoritarian Personality Theory: The theory suggests that the people who are of authoritarian personality tend to differentiate people on the basis of ‘us’, and ‘them’ groups. They are hostile to the people who comes from inferior background, however, they obediently listens to the people of high status (Levinson, Morrow and Adorno, 1950). 
Culture Theory: This theory was developed to study the heuristic subjects of cultural orientation in operations or scientifically oriented works (Kaplan and Manners, 1972).
Conflict Theory: The theory states that as society is divided into various groups, they fight for common interests opposing other groups. The rationale behind the fight/conflict can be attainment of social or economic resources (Møller, 2003).

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Question 4

Describe patterns of interaction among racial and ethnic categories in a society in terms of four models: pluralism, assimilation, segregation, and genocide.
Answer:
Pluralism: It defines a society where people from different race and ethnicity stay together and follow their respective religion and tradition instead of common tradition or religion (Connolly, 2005).
Assimilation: It is a process by which minor group integrates with a dominant and large group in a socially and culturally acceptable manner. For example, small ethnic and racial groups settling with a new group in a new country (Gordon, 1964).
Segregation: It is the differentiation of humans based on ethnic and racial grounds, such as drinking water, admission in a particular college, entry into specific religious place, and others (Finkelman, 2009).
Genocide: It is termed as mass-murder or elimination of any specific ethnic or racial group in a systematic manner. It is done for cleansing any area from any specific ethnic or racial habitats (Schilling, 2002).

Question 5

Give examples of inequality in both Race and Ethnicity in the United States.
Answer:
A study conducted by Krivo and Kaufman found that if the income of Whites in America is increased to $10k, then their home equity grows to $18k whereas for other races it is far below such as for Asians it reaches $9.5k, Hispanics by $15k and for African Americans $16k.
Social scientists have noted that Whites in America get privileges for being white whether they realize this fact or not (McIntosh, 2007). For example, white can drive fearlessly on the road in the night without any fear that they will be stopped by a police car, while this does not happen with other races.

Question 6

Define age stratification.
Answer:
Age Stratification: It refers to the ranking of the people in a society based on their age (Willie, 1960).

Question 7

What do you feel are the implications of age stratification?
Answer:
This leads to the notion that the people of certain should do or follow certain tasks or traits (Riley and Clausen, 1972). For example, children are expected to be obedient and carefree, adults are expected to law abiding, elderly are considered to be poorly abled and feeble at thinking.

References

Patterson, Phillip. Media Ethics. Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown, 1991.
Krivo, Lauren J.; Kaufman, Robert L. (2004). "Housing and Wealth Inequality: Racial-Ethnic Differences in Home Equity in the United States". Demography 41 (3): 585–605. doi:10.1353/dem.2004.0023
McIntosh, P (2007). White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondence through work in women’s studies. In M. L. Andersen & P.H. Collins (Eds.), Race, class, and gender: An anthology (6th ed.). Belmont, C.A: Wadsworth
Banton, Michael. Discrimination. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1994. Print.
Connolly, William E. Pluralism. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005. Print.
Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia Of African American History, 1896 To The Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Girard, Rene?. The Scapegoat. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986. Print.
Gordon, Milton Myron. Assimilation In American Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964. Print.
Jacobs, Carolyn, and Dorcas D Bowles. Ethnicity & Race. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of Social Workers, 1988. Print.
Kaplan, David, and Robert A Manners. Culture Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972. Print.
Levinson, Maria Hertz, William Morrow, and Theodor W Adorno. The Authoritarian Personality. New York, N.Y.: Harper, 1950. Print.
Møller, Bjørn. Conflict Theory. Aalborg: DIR, 2003. Print.
Riley, Matilda W, and John A Clausen. A Sociology Of Age Stratification. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1972. Print.
Schilling, D. G. "Encyclopedia Of Genocide". Holocaust and Genocide Studies 16.3 (2002): 465-472. Web.
Willie, Charles V. "Age Status And Residential Stratification". American Sociological Review 25.2 (1960): 260. Web.

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