Immunological and Cellular Events


1.    Define anaphylaxis and explain the immunological and cellular events that initiate the response (10 marks)


Anaphylaxis is the medical terminology symptoms which take place any time at human body at any age. It suddenly shows its symptoms and can progress rapidly. By the rapid allergic reaction formed in the human body for any kind of bad food habit this symptom takes place. Anaphylaxis is one of the systematic reaction type issues which are involving with all the multiple organ system. Understanding of those mechanisms of the mast cell degranulation and activation is one of critical thing to understand. As per recent articles it had been obtained that therapeutic intervention is one of the issues belongs to that system (Nel, L. and Eren, 2011). 

With the scheme or kind of idea of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases department it can be observed that food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network are kind of same thing and it can be occurred to human body. Agents and representatives are from several organizations in USA and abroad met in symposia in the year of 2005 to discuss and look for agreement on a universally established description and scientific criteria for recognition of anaphylaxis. 
2.    What are the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in children and why do you think some are more prevalent before 5 years of age and some after 5 years of age? (5 marks)
Anaphylaxis the medical term symptoms take place any time. It suddenly shows its symptoms and can progress rapidly. The starting or kind of earliest stage symptoms may be mild (runny nose), after that the rash flows in the skin kind of "strange feeling." These symptoms are capable to spread quickly and lead to additional severe problems, including:
•    Swelling is one the most dangerous issue
•    Tightness of the throat of low aged baby
•    Hoarse voice
•    Pain in the abdomen
•    Diarrhea
•    Fainting and dizziness
•    Doom feeling 
People have a harsh sensitive reaction and are at risk for next reactions. However the first reaction is mild as per discussion and in the near future the reactions might be more brutal. That's why it's significant to take self-inject able epinephrine if at risk (Eren, 2011). 
3.    What are the more common, primary presentations of anaphylaxis in children and what is the rationale or link between the trigger and presentation/clinical features? How does this differ compared to adults? (10 marks)
The main different symptom is basically the cardiac arrest as this can be happen only when anaphylaxis is taking place to elder. Infant to adolescent food allergy or habit of problem to take food properly Anaphylaxis can occur. According to;
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; ED, emergency department
It has been observed that within the six year of aged people may have the symptoms of this illness. And this may be happened due to bad food habit and for that reason acute allergic reaction may be taken place in the body. With the help of sampling technique it has been observed that few symptoms are like;

Clinical feature

For ED visits it has been determined that, to due acute allergic reaction and it is only about food habit and it has a digenesis code, by which a structure may be followed as a scope and it will be performed to collect the following data:
Patient demographics, medical history, presentation and clinical course are very differential processes. The charts were reviewed by two physicians, including a pediatric allergist. Doctors used stratified example technique to reproduce those critical patients within the partly reviewed code named as ICD-9 (708.X, 995.1 and 995.3).
•    Medical History
•    Clinical course and presentation
•    Demographic analysis of patients
•    Pediatric allergist
4.    Describe the time course of the development of anaphylaxis and explain the immunological events that influence the timing of the reaction. (10 marks)

This development disease is a serious issue and it developed with the first symptoms of allergic reaction. Tongue swelling in 1 day after that rash in the mouth and the total body. The symptom mainly focuses after the three days of this period. In the period of time vomiting, loss tools and also a kind of low blood pressure typically comes over few minutes.  
Skin                     Respiratory                    Cardiovascular 
The disease is one of the systematic reaction type issues as doctor knows and treatment is there also but need to know the allergic issue occurred by which type of reaction and also needs to know the food habit of human body. The immunological mechanism is well processed and it can be much more effective. 
5.    What is the recommended, first-line treatment of anaphylaxis and how does it work (ie link what it does specifically at the cellular level with the response seen at the tissue level)? How is it administered in the first instance, and what is the rationale for this route? Are there complications that may result from using this medication? (20 marks)

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Differential diagnosis

There is differential diagnosis and it can be sometimes be very difficult to analyze what type of fever a baby or aged people has. Distinguishing anaphylaxis from panic attacks or any kind of syncope or may be from asthma or from gastrointestinal symptoms is very difficult. There are many signs like rash, tongue swelling and may be a chronic heart attack occurs.   
Prevention and recommendation
Prevention of the activation of this disease called anaphylaxis is always recommended. In cases may be or not may be possible and can be distinguished and also desensitization may be an option for that. The immunological mechanism is well processed and it can be much more effective also (Dinakar, 2012).
6.    How is anaphylaxis treated in the community setting? Identify and support with evidence ONE of the key issues that you think influences the effective use of these devices. (15 marks)

Treatment over Community 

•    Ambulance is the key factor and it will be equipped with fluid and oxygen cylinder.
•    If intense with alarm or kind of shock judged immediately life threatening.
•    Epinephrine utmost result 10 minutes after IM inoculation/injection
•    CPR/BLS is not mandatory option but when needed it is almost a major thing  
•    If respiratory suffering present in the body, elevate head. 
This problem is increasing rapidly across the world. This issue may be enormous for all kind of aged people. The symptoms are nowadays well known but treatment criticism is not up to the mark. According to Melanie L;
•    Medical History
•    Clinical course and presentation
•    Demographic analysis of patients
•    Pediatric allergist
7.    Identify a more recent article that extends the information provided in Dinakar and is related to the pre-hospital context. Provide the details of the article and a brief synopsis of their findings. (10 marks)

Need to find the characteristics first about the symptoms and determine the incidence happened according to the case records are found. The primary diagnosis should be started regarding the issue. 21.1% of the whole anaphylaxis cases were pediatric and it is about (n=80) with a greater proportion of male (n=46) to female (n=34) and that could be happened with thepediatric patients accordingly. 


Incidence and patient demographics of pre-hospital anaphylaxis in Tasmania, Australia (PDF Download Available). Available from: [accessed Mar 28 2018].
Dinakar C. Anaphylaxis in Children: Current Understanding and Key Issues in Diagnosis and Treatment. Curr. Allergy Asthma Rep. 2012: 641-649
Nel, L. and Eren, E., 2011. Peri?operative anaphylaxis. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 71(5), pp.647-658.

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