Hemoglobin in the Blood


In a short essay (500-750 words), answer the Question at the end of Case Study 1.
Case Study 1
Ms. A. is an apparently healthy 26-year-old white woman. Since the beginning of the current golf season, Ms. A has noted increased shortness of breath and low levels of energy and enthusiasm. These symptoms seem worse during her menses. Today, while playing in a golf tournament at a high, mountainous course, she became light-headed and was taken by her golfing partner to the emergency clinic. The attending physician’s notes indicated a temperature of 98 degrees F, an elevated heart rate and respiratory rate, and low blood pressure. Ms. A states, “Menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal have been a problem for 10-12 years, and I take 1,000 mg of aspirin every 3 to 4 hours for 6 days during menstruation.” During the summer months, while playing golf, she also takes aspirin to avoid “stiffness in my joints.”
Laboratory values are as follows:
Hemoglobin = 8 g/dl
Hematocrit = 32%
Erythrocyte count = 3.1 x 10/mm
RBC smear showed microcytic and hypochromic cells
Reticulocyte count = 1.5%
Other laboratory values were within normal limits.
Considering the circumstances and the preliminary workup, what type of anemia does Ms. A most likely have? In an essay of 500-750 words, explain your answer and include rationale.


Case Study 1

Anemia is a particular condition of blood that is deficient of red blood cells (RBC) or Hemoglobin. If the human body lacks the adequate Hemoglobin in the blood, oxygen cannot be circulated to all parts of the body, because Hemoglobin is the binder that fastens the oxygen molecules to the red blood corpuscles, resulting in improper functioning of the various internal organs making the human being feel extremely tired and weak. There are seven types of anemia, of which this particular case study indicates a situation of iron deficiency anemia that has caused a 26 year old lady to suffer from certain symptoms that is making her suffer.  The iron deficiency anemia is initiated when the body is undersupplied of necessary iron to produce enough Hemoglobin for normal activities of the body organs (Fletcher, 2017).
It is the commonest form of Anemia which is caused by severe blood loss mostly due to menstruation overflow, elevated demands for iron during pregnancy or multiple pregnancy, children passing the phase of growth spurt in women. The condition is often cured by implementation of iron supplement as well as resolving the innate cause of iron deficiency. There are a range of causes that prevents the body from getting adequate oxygen(Health24, 2017. Heavy menstrual bleeding or Menorrhagia, is the most significant cause of iron deficiency which often occurs due to peptic ulcer, haemorrhoids or gastritis. Menorrhagia is experienced by about two million women across the globe among which twenty percent develop anemia (Women’sHealth,n.d).  This condition is often hastened by less absorption of iron which is initiated from post stomach removal operations, inadequate peptic acid or chronic diarrhea. Anemic conditions also have its basis on malnutrient diet lacking in iron. An iron rich diet includes egg, meat, spinach, flowering banana and also fatty fishes that supply the necessary iron to the body. There are certain types of cancer that lead to iron deficiency within the body and again people suffering from Celiac disease or Crohn’s disease are unable to absorb enough iron from food that results in anemia. Nevertheless, iron deficiency anemia is not created overnight rather it takes a considerable period of time to develop and can be treated with improvement in diet and supplements only. But if not detected in time, the symptoms like general weakness, tachycardia or fast heart beat, lightheadedness, excessive tiredness, fragile nails, shortness of breath may show. The patient may feel chest pain, coldness in limbs, sore tongue or inflammatory feelings in tongue, poor appetite and may appear pale. Heart problems may arise in rare cases due to lack of oxygen in heart and may even result in enlarged heart or heart fail (Fletcher, 2017).
About six million women suffer from this condition of iron deficient anemia in their reproductive age across the globe and is one of the commonest deficiencies in the U.S. a right diet and lifestyle is the secret of preventing iron deficiency anemia and a patient may overcome the condition by taking iron supplement to carry on with a seamless life and a healthy pregnancy. Yet, the mode of treatment depends on the severity of the condition and in worsened conditions, even surgery may be necessary along with blood transfusion and intravenous therapy. Growing children are usually at highest risk for this type of anemia (Women’sHealth,n.d).


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Jenna Fletcher, 2017, Medical News Today, Iron deficiency anemia: Causes, symptoms, and management, Retrieved February 12, 2018 from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318096.php  
Health24;Live A Great Life, 2017, The seven types of anaemia, Retrieved on February 12, 2018 from https://www.health24.com/Lifestyle/Your-Blood/Anaemia-20130216-2 
Women’s Health(n.d), Health Information and More, Retrieved  on February 12, 2018 from http://www.womens-health.co.uk/women-and-anemia.html  


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