Four Quadrant Model and Learning strategies



  • Select a Teaching/Learning theoretical approach as an overall guide for developing teaching/Learning strategies in the occupational therapy program of study and discuss.




The occupational therapy is important for enabling people with special needs to take part fully in the regular activities through therapeutic use. Often the people with disabilities, injury related damages face problems to make cognitive and physical changes. However, with the help of right occupational therapy teaching models, such individuals can improve their condition and become able to perform regular activities. The current assignment deals with selection of an occupational therapy teaching –learning model on basis of theoretical approaches and development of two learning strategies for optimizing effectiveness of the model.

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Occupational therapy teaching approaches: 

 In Occupational Therapy, two types of primary approaches are used to make cognitive changes among the individuals. The bottom-up approach ensures that the deficits of are learners are identified using performance evaluation and mitigated through appropriate remedies (Taylor, 2017). The top-down approach of occupational therapy enables the learners to perform different roles and remove the barriers for achievement. However, making a leaner able to act in different roles may not be effective to eliminate the deficits. Rather, finding out the deficits is important for helping a learner to improve the cognitive status is more effective and use of bottom-up approach enables occupational therapists to do it. Therefore, here, the bottom-up approach is selected as the guide for teaching learners.
The Four Quadrant Model (4QM) is an effective teaching-learning model used by occupational therapists for facilitating individuals to develop new skills on basis of their particular needs. According to Richter et al.(2017), 4QM can be used as a framework to select learning strategies for the learners , while developing new skills as it employs the principle of bottom-up approach.

Four Quadrant Model and learning strategies:

 Each quadrant of 4QM indicates four different learning activities. The first quadrant of 4QM framework deals with task specification (Pendleton & Schultz-Krohn, 2017). This quadrant helps the teachers to understand whether a learner is aware of what to do and how to do through a number of techniques such as instruction, demonstration and lower order questions. The techniques described in second quadrant, such as the feedbacks, non-verbal prompts and higher level questions inform the teacher whether learner can identify his/her errors. The third and fourth quadrant assists the teachers to realize the learner’s ability to recall procedures and generalize the learned knowledge.(Refer to Appendix 1)
Use of imagery: Use of imagery is one of the simplest methods that helps individuals to learn new concepts easily and remember them (Carroll et al.2017). Demonstration is one of the key parts of the 4Q model. Use of imagery would help the learners to get clear idea on any new concept and memorize it easily.
Summarizing: To improve the physical and cognitive status, the occupational therapists emphasize on the learner’s ability to memorize the concepts. Summarizing the newly learned facts is a useful technique to comprehend the new knowledge (Radder et al.2017).Summarizing helps the students to identify important facts from a newly learned concept and realize the relationships among them. The process enhances memory of the learners and facilitates them to enhance the memory in their own way.


The current discussion indicates that the bottom-up approach is an useful approach for the occupational therapists to help individuals in developing new skills. However, the ability of a learner to learn new concepts and comprehend those can be improved using imagery representation and summarizing.


Carroll, A., Herge, E. A., Johnson, L., & Schaaf, R. C. (2017). Outcomes of an Evidence-Based, Data Driven-Model Fieldwork Experience for Occupational Therapy Students. Journal of Occupational Therapy Education, 1(1), 7.
Pendleton, H. M., & Schultz-Krohn, W. (2017). Pedretti's Occupational Therapy-E-Book: Practice Skills for Physical Dysfunction. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Radder, D. L., Sturkenboom, I. H., van Nimwegen, M., Keus, S. H., Bloem, B. R., & de Vries, N. M. (2017). Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease. International Journal of Neuroscience, 127(10), 930-943.
Richter, A., Barley, S., & Valdes, K. (2017). Validated Outcome Measures Used by Occupational Therapists for Clients With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(4_Supplement_1), 7111500048p1-7111500048p1.
Taylor, R. R. (2017). Kielhofner's Research in Occupational Therapy: Methods of Inquiry for Enhancing Practice. FA Davis.


Fig: 4Q model
(Source: Radder et al.2017,p-932)

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