Brief Paper on Modern United nations


Briefing paper on Costa Rica.


Executive Summary


This report has made an approach to Costa Rica’s Global Arms Trade and Policies that control them. This report will discuss why there is a need for global arms trade, what are the impacts of global arms trade on Costa Rica. 


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PART A: Issue Analysis


On a daily basis, many individuals experience the bad effects of non-responsible arms trade either directly or indirectly: there are more than thousands of people in Costa Rica who died, others have been harmed, and many of the women had been raped. Due to the poor regulation of global trade of arms, there is a rise in human rights manhandle, poverty and mishandling. The issues are connected to the expanding globalization of weapon trade - in the segments accessible in the entire world and in various nations, underway and gathering, at times with almost no control. Residential control of arms trade has neglected to adapt to these changes.[ CITATION Bov18 \l 16393 ]
What Has been done so Far?
While existing national and provincial controls are critical, they are insufficient to stop the non-dependable exchange of arms and ammunition between the nations. That is the reason Oxfam called a member of UN to convey a solid and successful Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) on members of UN, to save the individuals, to avoid abuse of human rights, and to ensure the employment of individuals around the globe. After over 10 years of attention, the primary global arms trade settlement has turned into a reality. The further stage is to guarantee that it has been properly implemented to decrease the human expenses related to uncontrolled trade in traditional ammunition and arms.[ CITATION Pet12 \l 16393 ]
There is an estimate that cost of the corruption per year, in the defence sector is around $20 billion. According to the research by US department of commerce, corruption in the trade of arms accounts around 50% of total corruption on a global basis, although the value of annual sales of arms in not more than 1%. 
What difference will treaty make? Effectively executed, this agreement can help change the way of doing arms trade. It will set new guidelines and will firmly control the arms trade in global laws, which have been managed poorly for ages. 
Global Arms Trade will replace global weapon trade, it will enable sparkle to spotlight on end-client. It will never again be satisfactory to take a look at different strategies when the weapons are exchanged to those regimes which will utilize them to harm innocent individuals and their human rights. All the states are influenced by non-responsible weapon trade and in this manner, all nations have a stake in Global Arms Trade. Anyhow whether they are the exporters of weapon or the exporters of arms or state influenced by savagery or a blend are terrifically essential. Also, without some huge exporters of the board, Global Arms Trade still has a very high value. It makes another worldwide standard for a fare of weapons which will demonstrate the best approach to send out weapons to all states, even to the individuals who have not yet marked. All states will be estimated against the perfect and will be sorted out to some degree.[ CITATION Bit94 \l 16393 ]
How Global Arms Trade work with respect to Costa Rica?
Under the new standards of GAT, before any weapons exchange is made, the provisional government should survey the hazard related with the arrangement against severe standards, regardless of whether the utilization of weapons is for human rights infringement or war. In case, this incidence is a big danger, at that point, the deal cannot be approved by the vendor. The first meeting of the State Parties of the Treaty is expected from late August/early-September 2015. States and common society will cooperate in these meetings to guarantee that the treaty is being executed appropriately and it is a non-dependable weapon trade that is closing. Costa Rica has been a solid accuser of the Regional Weapon Boundary Agreement. In May 1997, President Oscar Arias, in collaboration with a gathering of peace prize winner, launched Nobel Peace Prize Winners International Code of Conduct on Arms Transfers.  As a challenge to the universal group, a revelatory instrument, the Code of Conduct has set a stringent set of standards in which all weapon trade decision is required: crimes against the outrages, genocide, or humankind, no weapons for infringement of human right, responsible for exchanging weapons and respect for peaceful coexistence and sustainable development.[ CITATION Lau05 \l 16393 ]
In light of the standards of a set of principles today, the activity is known as the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). To control trade in these weapons, a worldwide agreement has been set up to initiate a set of cores, universal and binding standards for the regulation of arms trade and is set up by a group of human rights and another specialist. It is essential to note about the treaty, that it isn't another set of standards, but used to give strength to the current standards of worldwide law. It unites every one of the limits in just a single instrument, which has the ability to move those limits which are as of now introduce in worldwide law, either implied or explicitly.
As a member of United Nations Security Council, Costa Rica needs to utilize its situation to call for disarmament, or if nothing else control over the sales and purchase of weapons. The licensed Arias Government for its status of peace will push for a settlement on the exchange of weapons, which will monitor the nation's arms deals and prevent the sales to nations because of abuse of gross human rights. Adopting this kind of treaty can start internationally without a doubt and can be a clean way to live the world.


Part B: Country Paper


The Republic of Costa Rica is the country which is in Central America. The land is surrounded by Panama in the south-east, in the east is the Caribbean Sea, in the north it is surrounded by Nicaragua and in the west, it is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean. According to the name of the country, Costa Rica means “Rich Coast”. About physical topography, three high mountain ranges are situated in the nation; They are situated in the southern regions of the country, centre valley and Costa Rica. Some of these mountain ranges are especially prominent. For instance, in the central region of Costa Rica, the mountains are as high as of 3,636.36 meters in, In reference to topographical topography, three critical mountain ranges are situated in the nation; They are situated in the southern locales of the northern, centre valley and Costa Rica. Some of these mountain ranges are especially prominent. [ CITATION Cos18 \l 16393 ]
Costa Rica Security: 
Costa Rica is far from immunity to security and difficulties that plague South and Central America. The nation has turned into a noteworthy place for universal drugs and crime problems; Columbia and Mexican drug cartels are getting away from just one transit point to become collection and storage points.
Country Position
It is understandable that in view of the increasing importance of the country as a transit point in the international drug trade, arms smuggling networks are increasing in Costa Rica. Inexplicability in combating Costa Rica's strategic geographical location and smuggling of international narcotics has not only made it attractive not only to FARC but also for the Mexican carts such as the Sinaloa Cartel and the Knights Templer. These drugs traffickers have not just made interest for illegal firearms in Costa Rica but in addition the methods and assets the smuggling of weapons abroad. GAT works by setting up a set of parameters, in which state meeting should apply to all exchanges of regular weapons, ammo, parts and segments, which fall under the domain of the treaty. 
Conventional weapons were dropped into seven fundamental categories: war tanks, battling vehicles with armour, large artillery, war airship, assault helicopters, warships, rockets and rocket launchers and little arms and light weapons. Regardless of whether to approve the exchange, the criteria appropriate to this choice can be isolated into two principal classes: Ban and Export Assessments. 




GAT and its interaction process are novel for several reasons. One of the most interesting aspects of current efforts to talk to GAT is that it spreads division between the two worlds - between arms control agreements and export control regimes. There is a ban on the use of weapons of development, production, storage, dissemination, and various types of weapons, especially mass destruction, of disarmament and weapon control agreements. They are frequently determined by attempts to kill certain sorts of weapons or add to the procedure of demilitarization and put stock in the building. State cooperation in every one of these procedures is one of their objectives.
In the way, GAT separates the two worlds, makes GAT a challenging and complex tool to communicate. The solution to this pressure will include consolidating the best and most appropriate components from every point of view. For supporters of ATT, this procedure leads to two better approaches for demilitarization and weapon control and fare control administration in another worldview.
Risk Management 
The objective of the risk methodology is to enable non-discriminatory evaluation of identifiable - and, where possible, investigative - risk factors that can have a negative impact on the transfer of weapons. In addition, in the risk method, the relevant nuances of Costa Rica importing weapons are kept in mind, especially in those situations where the ability to reduce the risk of state security will be in positive development, for example, in such references where Organized armed crime and spread of armed violence reduce the state's ability to maintain law and order; The security requirements should not be prevented from addressing. The result of managing this threat is the return of better development since public trust in the rule of law is reestablished and investment in infrastructure and public service begin paying profits.
The treaty will guarantee that it addresses the issues of importers and exporters of weapons to empower risk assessment to launch a risk assessment process and empower both authorities of export and import to distinguish potential indicators for the risk that the exchange can be procured improperly, its content can be misused.




However, due to the recession of the world, there is a possibility of a fall in trade volume and globalization, but the global arms industry retained this trend by showing relatively strong momentum in the early 2000s. As per the measurements of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIIPRI), the exchange of significant weapons in the time of 2012 to 2016, achieved the highest amount for a time of five years from the finish of the Cold War and was 8.4 percent higher in the year 2007 and 2011.  
In late decades, traditional wars between the state have offered an approach to internal and asymmetrical battles, which have been propelled by the sale of illegal or imperfectly controlled weapons. Such battles have targeted on the general citizen, which has turned into the major victim of violence by arms. GAT has the capacity to seek after human security through enhancing responsibility, transparency and responsibilities in universal weapon exchange controls. In doing as such, the treaty is to make a more secure and safer condition for each one of the individuals who are under the threat of violence.
The real strength of GAT will be acknowledged just through those techniques, in which states have implemented it. Keeping in mind the end goal to maximize the direct and indirect impacts of GAT, all partners must be available to advancement in gaining, as a matter of fact, creating sound practices and in other arrangement zones. Keeping up constructive and continuous interaction and usage of experts among an extensive variety of instruments of policy will be essential for the soundness of the settlement




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Costa Rica Geography Facts & Stats. (n.d.). Retrieved 4 11, 2018, from
Laurance, E. J., Wagenmakers, H., & Wulf, H. (2005). Managing the Global Problems Created by the Conventional Arms Trade: An Assessment of the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms. Global Governance, 11(2), 225. Retrieved 4 14, 2018, from
Petroski, D., & Rajkovchevski, R. (2012). Arms trade - Between the globalisation, security strategies, conflicts and profit. Retrieved 4 14, 2018, from



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