Benefits and Dangers of Nanotechnology

 

TOPICS, one of which will be assigned to you in week 2 at the compulsory library seminar 
 
1: Studying Nature vs. Nurture in humans using twins.  2: Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease: what is it and what can be done? 3: Nanotechnology: benefits and dangers. 4: The fight against malaria: can we develop a vaccine?  5: Latest approaches to treating cancer. 6: Biofuels from algae: are they are a reality yet? 7: Is gluten intolerance real, or just a marketing ploy? 8: Should we encourage dingoes back into the natural environment? 
 
 
Part A: Literature search to retrieve and reference 10-15 articles (6 marks) 
By searching at least two databases, identify and retrieve 10-15 scientific articles (often referred to as ‘papers’), that you consider to be relevant to the topic of your essay plan. You are required to give the proper reference for each of the articles using Harvard scientific formatting as instructed in week 2 of class. A reference is the standard way of listing the information needed to identify and retrieve a specific article. If there is overlap in some of the references (i.e., if more than one database identifies the same article, which is likely), make sure that, overall, you have 10 different articles in your reference list. This list of references is all that is required in the submission for Part A, and is separate to the list of articles that you will present in Part B. That is, Part A is a list of 10-15 articles, and Part B requires a separate list that you have used for the Essay Plan in Part B. Things to note for Part A, are: 
• Are there at least 10 (max. 15) different references to articles that are relevant to the topic? • Have you used at least two databases (more is fine, e.g., ProQuest Biological Science, Google Scholar, Scifinder etc) to source these articles? • List your references according to which database you sourced them from. That is, you will actually have two or more lists, each under a heading which is a database title.  • At least 8 of the 10 references should be to journal articles; the other references may be to books or newspaper articles. • Make sure all of your references are cited correctly (Harvard style) and that you have been consistent in the way you have cited them (see Class 2 notes for examples).  
 
Part B: Essay plan and reference list (14 marks) You are NOT being asked to write an essay but rather to construct a detailed essay plan. A well-constructed essay plan is an abridged version of what you would actually write in a full essay; it is a skeleton, if you like, that will give the reader (the marker, in this case) a good idea of what the full-blown essay would look like. Full sentences are required for your essay plan, but these sentences may be in dot-point (bullet) form, if you wish. The layout should be in the form of an Introduction, followed by at least three paragraphs or body sections which each have a title to reflect their content, and then a Conclusion section. 
 
For each statement, or dot-point in sentence form, you should give the in-text citation of the article/s that gave you this information. The in-text citation/s may be in the middle of a sentence or, more usually, at the end. These citations may be to articles that you already have as part of your 10 articles in Part A, or you may need/wish to find other more relevant articles that directly support your topic’s essay plan. 

 

 

Introduction

It has been found that the identical twins, share 100% of each other genes pair from their parents and the environment in which they sustain their survival (Steen, 2013). It has been found as per the twin studies that such comparing of the influences can be greatly found due to the genes in comparison to the environment which only influences the personality and the behaviour. It has been found as per the advances in the genetics that the "nurture" versus the "nature" does not hold true ads the genres combine with the given environment which can produce the complex human traits. Various researchers and the scholars have conducted the twin study in answering the question pertaining to nature and the nurture to enable answers (Stokes, 2013).

The stories of the twins are fascinating for the generic population, as one can observe that the identical twins have essential of each other pair shares of genres (Stahringer, 2012). While nurturing them and bringing them in the same family environment, it has been found that the common genes and with the given same environment indicate twins similarity.  It might be true, as per the various scholars who interpret and classify that the genes and the environment potentially shape the human lives (Sobrin, 2014).  It is also often seen that the twin studies and the influential observations around the genes and the environment can also bring a significant differentiation with regards to the human traits and the behaviours (Reiss, 2017).

Body

By definition, the twins mean that they have a similar genetic material along with the shared upbringing which can make the special interest in the studies included in the genetic (Punder, 2017).  For this, one can make one twin as the control variable while keeping the other as a dependent variable for the purpose of the study, which can show that the though the identical twins can look same, but often due to the same condition environment they might react, understand and behave differently (Polderman, 2015).  For the comparison of the innate behaviour with the learned behaviour, it is essential to know the studies which are testing the humans that aim for the particular human characteristic that can greatly influence the subject's genetic material or the given environment in which they have been nurtured (Neale, 2013).

The twins can be of two types which are the identical twins who share their genetic material along with their rearing environment while the other is the fraternal twins who only share the same environment in terms of nurturing (Kong, 2018).  While studying the twins it is important to understand the studies testing humans which can determine if particular human characteristics can also greatly influence the subject's of the genetic material or can bring a conducive environment which can help in raising. For examples 
 
Considering the effects of nature vs. the nurture that can show a significant difference in terms of the dietary preferences (Krishnan, 2012)
The next element which can be introspected are the effects of nature vs the nurture which can show that there are also some of the cases of genetic illness such as cancer. 
It is important to understand each individual study needs to be aligned with the vast numbers of the twins which can bring in a significant accuracy towards the determined results (Kandler, 2012).

As per the traditional studies, it has been evaluated that the scholars who have studied in terms of addressing the nature vs the nurture questions have propounded that the identical twins who have been separated at birth and are bought and raised in the different environment are the ideal cases for the tests, but such cases and findings are extremely difficult to be found (Mayhew, 2017).  Due to this some of the researchers who are conducting the studies try to evaluate the study on the basis of the grown up together to carefully, compare, examining along with understanding the experiences of the identical twins with respect to the fraternal twins (Harold, 2013). It has been found some of the identical twins are monozygotic which is defined as a development through the single sperm which is fertilising the single egg, which then at later stages divides into two separate cell masses within the weeks of development and thereupon the twins are then a result of being a clones (Ferreira, 2013). The other fraternal twins are the result of the dizygotic which are developed with the help of the two eggs, which are separately fertilized with the help of the different sperms.  It has been found while the identical twins have 100% same pairs of genes, the other fraternal twins have been identified as sharing 50% of their genes with each other. In comparison with respect to the identity and the fraternal twins, it has been enabled that the researchers are able to identify the separate genetic with respect to the environmental influences which can help in measuring the genes directly (Chen, 2013). It has also been found that the physical or the behavioral trait such as the hair color, or anything pertaining to the success in academics are likely to be share in the cases of the identical twins than in the cases of the fraternal twins. The researchers have also indicated the science and the findings which mention that it is the role of the gene which has developed the certain traits (Belfer, 2013).

While identical twins may have certain likely attribution such as the colour of skin or eyes, the researchers have found the other environmental factors in which they live in, may result in differences such as the career similarity, likely to have influence from the family or the genetic likeness. The researchers also indicate that there can be distinguishing factors pertaining to the identical twins who may or may not be similar while similarly the fraternal twins even though showing dissimilar traits, can also indicate certain similarities. 

Conclusion

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It has been found that the twins and their related studies have found the relevant studies which can show certain evidence towards the human traits and behaviours. Such as depression which is running in the family (Bates, 2018).  s per the twin studies conducted it has been also shown that the one twin in an identical pair may also experience depression, and the likely hood of the other twin experiencing same health condition is 50 %. . Similarly, for the fraternal cases, the chances become more one by sixth. This is all due to the existence of the genetics and the tendencies which shows traits, behaviours in terms of the height, weight or people experiencing a situation of the depressive psychosis or anything like alcoholism, cognitive development. Often the scholars use the twins experiment and studies for the purpose of determining the cognitive abilities in a person along with evaluating the upbringing, evaluation of their behaviour and determining the significance of the genes. Nature has a vital role in the play, but the genetics are more crucial in evaluating the twin studies conditions. All this has resulted in a significant assessment in determining the correct assessment of the twin studies cases.  The likelihood of the variations in genes which is often called as heritability along with the factors such as the family environment in which the twins survive and the likelihood of everything else which are not categorized in the unshared environment are the pre-determinable factors of the twin studies. All this have selected traits for the heritability, along with the variations with respect to the studies environment have an imperative impact on the differences in terms of the personality such as the neuroticism, extraversion along with the likelihood of the openness, agreeableness, and lastly the conscientiousness.

 

References

Google Scholar
Bates, T.C., Maher, B.S., Medland, S.E., McAloney, K., Wright, M.J., Hansell, N.K., Kendler, K.S., Martin, N.G. and Gillespie, N.A., 2018. The Nature of Nurture: Using a Virtual-Parent Design to Test Parenting Effects on Children's Educational Attainment in Genotyped Families. Twin Research and Human Genetics, pp.1-11.
Belfer, I., 2013. Nature and nurture of human pain. Scientifica, 2013.
Chen, B., Zhu, Z., Wang, Y., Ding, X., Guo, X., He, M., Fang, W., Zhou, Q., Zhou, S., Lei, H. and Huang, A., 2018. Nature vs. nurture in human sociality: multi-level genomic analyses of social conformity. Journal of human genetics, 63(5), p.605.
Ferreira, P.H., Beckenkamp, P., Maher, C.G., Hopper, J.L., and Ferreira, M.L., 2013. Nature or nurture it? Results of a systematic review of studies based on twin samples. European Journal of Pain, 17(7), pp.957-971.
Harold, G.T., Leve, L.D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J.M., Natsuaki, M.N., Shaw, D.S., Reiss, D. and Thapar, A., 2013. Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), pp.1038-1046.
J Mayhew, A., and Meyer, D., 2017. Assessing the Heritability of Complex Traits in Humans: Methodological Challenges and Opportunities. Current Genomics, 18(4), pp.332-340.
Kandler, C., 2012. Nature and nurture in personality development: The case of neuroticism and extraversion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(5), pp.290-296.
Krishnan, E., Lessov-Schlaggar, C.N., Krasnow, R.E. and Swan, G.E., 2012. Nature versus nurture in gout: a twin study. The American journal of medicine, 125(5), pp.499-504.
Kong, A., Thorleifsson, G., Frigge, M.L., Vilhjalmsson, B.J., Young, A.I., Thorgeirsson, T.E., Benonisdottir, S., Oddsson, A., Halldorsson, B.V., Masson, G. and Gudbjartsson, D.F., 2018. The nature of nurture: Effects of parental genotypes. Science, 359(6374), pp.424-428.
Neale, M.C.C.L., and Cardon, L.R., 2013. Methodology for genetic studies of twins and families (Vol. 67). Springer Science & Business Media.
ProQuest
Polderman, T.J., Benyamin, B., De Leeuw, C.A., Sullivan, P.F., Van Bochoven, A., Visscher, P.M. and Posthuma, D., 2015. Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nature Genetics, 47(7), p.702.
Ponder, P. and Nkara, F., 2017. Nature meets nurture in religious and spiritual development. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 35(1), pp.142-155.Reiss, D., 2017. Genetics, Behavioral Intervention, and Human Development. In Gene-Environment Transactions in Developmental Psychopathology (pp. 9-33). Springer, Cham.
Sobrin, L. and Seddon, J.M., 2014. Nature and nurture-genes and environment-predict onset and progression of macular degeneration. Progress in retinal and eye research, 40, pp.1-15.
Stahringer, S.S., Clemente, J.C., Corley, R.P., Hewitt, J., Knights, D., Walters, W.A., Knight, R. and Krauter, K.S., 2012. Nurture trumps nature in a longitudinal survey of salivary bacterial communities in twins from early adolescence to early adulthood. Genome research, 22(11), pp.2146-2152.
Stokes, P.R., Shotbolt, P., Mehta, M.A., Turkheimer, E., Benecke, A., Copeland, C., Turkheimer, F.E., Lingford-Hughes, A.R. and Howes, O.D., 2013. Nature or nurture? Determining the heritability of human striatal dopamine function: an [18F]-DOPA PET study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(3), p.485.
Books
Steen, R.G., 2013. DNA and Destiny: Nature and nurture in human behavior. Springer.

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