Applied Research Methods

For this task you will need to investigate current research trends in an area of interest to you. This could be a broad or narrow area; the area will need to be defined. Try to identify themes or ideas that you come across, for example, are there particular topics that are popular, or is there a key problem that has many different possible solutions? Your report needs to be structured so that someone not familiar with your area of interest can follow it.

Introduction

According to the book by C.R Kothari “The research, the methodology is one approach to collect the data for making business strategies. This report centres around a research strategy that is “Survey”.  A Survey goes under the classification of “charitable research”, which is thought to be exceptionally organized and this includes gathering data from people considering poll. At the end of the day, it is a technique for gathering quantitative information even more versatile with an arrangement of inquiries given to a group of individuals.
The essence of the survey technique can be clarified as "a review regarding a subject or topic, and its responses after that", the survey strategy for essential information accumulation in Business Studies is utilized to test ideas, reflects the state of mind of the general population, sets up level of consumer loyalty, direct division research and different purposes an arrangement of. Survey strategy can be utilized as a part of both quantitative, concurrent, subjective examinations.
Kothari said that, as we move forward with new technology and generation, surveys research is changing dramatically. In a case that you experience the historical background of survey study, it was divided into two fundamental classifications: Questionnaire and Interview questionnaire survey were directed with the assistance of pencils and papers. The information was to be gathered from people with the assistance of pencils. 
Then again, rising innovation has turned out to be further developed and efficient due to surveys research. Nowadays, individuals react to surveys through automated machines implemented in public places, for example, malls, phone or shopping centres, eateries, railroad stations and air terminals. The interview survey has now been produced in a research technique, still, it is viewed as a survey strategy where the questioner makes inquiries and gathers the data of the questioner through his input. 
The survey method adheres to two main objectives: 
1.    Describing characteristics of the population. 
2.    Examining estimations about the nature of relationships within the population.

The difference in View Point

There are various of survey research methodologies available like One-on-One survey, group survey, mail survey, telephone survey and house drop survey. Surveys can be composed of a group of individuals and can gather data from them. This sort of survey research is done to get kinds of information from the group of individuals. Such surveys are known as gathering regulated surveys. For the most part, it is done in an organization or business where we can expect that such sorts of surveys are considered important and expect a high rate of reaction from a group of individuals representing to the survey. (Kothari, 2004)
According to the consumer research methods, there is a misconception about the idea of people used to generally like group interviews and group surveys. In a group survey, there is dependably a questioner, who together with the gathering of individuals who speak to the meeting and session, hear each out other's examination or remarks, answer the questionnaires and achieve the assumption as a group. While in the group survey a poll is given to a gathering of individuals and it is relied upon to be finished.  (Consumer Research Methods, n.d.)
Mail Surveys is another kind of survey technique which a major advantage to send messages to a survey poll for some individuals. This survey is simple, and it is additionally the least expensive approach to direct a survey. Aside from this, it enables people to react to their own comfort. 
Nowadays, most telecom organizations are conducting surveys and doing most of the telephonic surveys, these types of surveys are sharper with minor and accurate inquiries. Sometimes people feel weird with this survey if it is too long, In the end, the survey is considered to be one of the surveys.

Different Aspects of Survey Research

According to Fowler, in his book “Survey Research Methods”, he explains about components of the survey.
Time and cost-effective: As we realize that a survey is done to gather information for estimating the opinion, view and idea and thoughts of the examples of people and it is just to imagine if a survey is led in a controlled, precise and in a practical way. For example, to gather information about everyone in the city, it is now possible to go and meet everyone in a city and take a meeting. It can cause wastage of time, labour and effort. In the same way, to lead a smart survey it is better to consider doing mail surveys, which will be substantially less expensive and will gather data that the meeting survey used to get. Along these lines, it can be a financial cost-effective and will consume time. (Fowler , 2013)
Generality: For the most part, one of the critical parts of the survey is that it is constantly important to keep a survey in a reasonable language and to keep the question simple, so it can be read and understandable for each individual and reply with no trouble. Along these lines, this will expand the reaction rate and the better gathering of information. Along these lines, there are aspects to be considered for directing a controlled and methodical survey like:
?    Generality
?    Time Consuming
?    Less Time Consuming
?    Reliable
Survey Ethics: This vital factor, which must be taken care of before moving any survey research. If the operation of research is not taken seriously, this may result in some major issue. Subsequently, the Council of the American Survey Research Organization (CASRO), the National Council of Public Council (NCPP) and the American People's Research Council (AAPOR) are a few associations that characterize the right method for directing a survey research. As per CASRO, respondents must not be compelled to take an interest in survey research. According to Sofaer, it is completely their decision whether to participate or not. Each research data must be communicated to the respondent and the reason behind the survey must be mentioned. If the respondent personal information is required in the survey, it is the duty of the researcher to secure it. At the end of the day, security must be kept in priority level. During the survey, use of recording devices and camcorders should be utilized only after the permission of respondent. Distribution of survey must be stopped on an immediate basis in case of demonstration of unethical practices and legal action should be taken in such a case. The invitation to survey for online surveys must not be sent randomly to any individual. Respondent must have any association in the past with the research organization or a few desires of getting an invitation for the survey. In such messages, respondents equally have the right to quit or unsubscribe such invitation emails from their future contacts. (Sofaer, 2002)
Risk: According to Trochim, because of the increasing innovation, today survey research is the most well-known on the web which also leads some potential risks and threat. To get individual’s personal detail, filling your own personal details or agreeing to accept surveys, the respondents should give careful consideration since fake surveys are sorted out. Individuals are paying to finish surveys online generally fake email IDs are given to respondents and are requested to finish the survey to get paid. Such fraudulent practice is unsafe for the organization and in addition the respondents. Some companies generally follow this practice to go and collect the collected data in the survey. (Trochim, 2002).

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Examples of Survey

The hospitality industry is very popular today to survey for their service, food and customer satisfaction. The survey sample showing the customer feedback form is as follows:
This form gives the organization great esteem and enables them to know where they truly are standing. This survey normally encourages the organization to enhance their inadequacies and can equally be utilized for the organization's credit limit, which will take them with a higher rating in the market. Subsequently, this is the ideal approach to accumulate data from respondents. Survey methods are broadly divided into three parts: mail survey, face to face survey and telephonic survey.

Research Design

In their book, “Research Methods in Phycology” authors explain three general types of overall structure or design that are used in the survey. (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2011 ).
Cross-sectional Studies: Here a sample is gathered from the various individual against the population. A cross-sectional investigation depicts the qualities of that population at one time but cannot provide any insight as for the purpose behind the public qualities, since it is an intuitive, correlational outline.
Successive independent samples studies: This type of samples used to gather various sample randomly from the population either one or more times. This design can study the progressions inside the population, so far does not change inside the individuals because a similar individual does not do the survey more than once. Such examinations may not really relate to the progressions after some time. For regular sample design to be viable, examples must be drawn from a similar population and must to be similarly illustrative. In a case that samples are not practically identical, the change between examining might be because of demographic qualities as opposed to time. Moreover, the inquiry must be asked in such a path in this way, to the point that the reaction can be compared. (Bennett, et al., 2011)
Longitudinal Studies: Longitudinal studies take estimations of the same sample randomly at the multiple time points. Not at all like continual independent sample plan, this design measures the distinction between the reactions of various members after some time. This implies a researcher can the assess differences in the experience of respondents and potentially evaluate the causes of reaction changes. 
Longitudinal studies are the most effortless approach to survey the impact of a naturally occurring event, for example, a divorce that cannot be tried experimentally. Anyhow, both longitudinal studies are costly and hard to discover an sample, which studies a month or year- ago compared with a 15-minute meeting, and members have frequently left the examination before the last examination. 
This interval of members isn't random, so tests can turn out to be less explanatory with the consistent examination. For this, a researcher can contrast with the respondents who left this survey, not to see that they are a factually extraordinary population. Respondents can attempt to act naturally reliable regardless of the adjustment in the response to the survey. (Kennedy & Vargus, 2001)

Conclusion

As a scientific field, the survey method wants to identify principles about data processing statistical adjustments of data, sample design, statistical adjustments of data, data collection methods and analysis of final figures, which can create systematic and random survey errors. In connection with survey costs, survey errors are sometimes analyzed. The cost reduction is sometimes prepared as a quality improvement within the cost reduction, or alternatively, the cost method for a certain level of quality reduces the cost of the survey methodology is a scientific field and a profession, which means It is true that some professionals in the field have surveys to influence survey errors and reduce others. (Groves, et al., 2009) During last few decades, social psychological researchers have valued the unpredictability of social behaviour and ideas. In many domains, the simple "fundamental impact" theories have been replaced with theories which are more powerful. To an ever-increasing extent, social psychologists trust that phycological process which is manifested in a social group can work apart among other social groups and that variables of that identity, social personality and social standards deeply affecting the idea of numerous social mental phenomena. 
In the end, I will like to conclude with a quote, as a quote speaks a thousand words. “To understand how consumers really think and feel, it is vital to go beyond words.” Said by Katja Bressette. This shows survey research is extremely vital how much individuals consider respondents and feel comprehensive about this subject, which fundamentally causes us to make sense of why we are not behind, and we provide a chance to enhance them.

Bibliography

Bennett, C., Khangura, S. D., Brehaut, J. C., Graham, I. D., Moher, D., Potter, B. K., & Grimshaw, J. (2011). Reporting Guidelines for Survey Research: An Analysis of Published Guidance and Reporting Practices. PLOS Medicine, 8(8). Retrieved 3 13, 2018, from http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069
Consumer Research Methods. (n.d.). Retrieved 3 12, 2018, from http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/cb_Research_Methods.html
Fowler, F. J. (2013). Fowler Jr, Floyd J. Survey research methods. 
Groves, R. M., Fowler, F. J., Couper, M. P., Lepkowski, J. M., Singer, E., & Tourangeau, R. (2009). Survey Methodology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Kennedy, J. M., & Vargus, B. (2001). Challenges in Survey Research and Their Implications for Philanthropic Studies Research. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 30(3), 483-494. Retrieved 3 13, 2018, from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0899764001303006
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Age International.
Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2011 ). Research Methods in Psychology. McGraw-Hill.
Sofaer, S. (2002). Qualitative research methods. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 14(4), 329-336. Retrieved 3 13, 2018, from https://academic.oup.com/intqhc/article/14/4/329/1791255
Trochim, W. M. (2002). Types of Surveys. Retrieved 3 13, 2018, from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/survtype.php

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