- A study of the bird strike prevention management for airport operation with focus on Hong Kong International Airport
- Literature Review
- Critical Appraisal
- Research Methodology
- Research Design
- Research Hypotheses
- Nature of Research
- Research Instrument
- Population & Sampling
- Ethical Considerations
- Reliability & Validity
- Information uncovered
- Construct Validity
- Assumptions & Limitations
- Social, Professional, Legal and ethical issues
- Appendix 1
A study of the bird strike prevention management for airport operation with focus on Hong Kong International Airport
Most of these accidents result when there is a direct collision between the bird and the windscreen of the aircraft or when a bird gets pulled into the engines of an aircraft. Annual damages resulting from this has been estimated up to $ 400 million within alone United States and worldwide results in a minimum of $ 1.2 billion dollars in 2009, and can be estimated to have grown by manifold in the last decade (Allan & Orosz, 2009). Apart from this economic losses alone, bird strikes with aircrafts and other manmade structures acts as a contributing factor for the decline of a number of avian species. The ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) reported a total case of 65, 139 bird collisions between the years 2011 to 2014. FAA or the Federal Aviation Authority totally presented a statistics of 177269 strikes with aircrafts between the years 1990 and 2015 amongst which bird strikes comprised of 97% of the total number of collisions.
As per the Federal Aviation Administration, more than 50 of the bird strikes occur during the months of July to October per year, and that is the time for young birds to leave their nests and the fall migration starts. Statistics indicate that more than 70% of the bird strike collisions occur near the altitude of 500 feet above ground and around 94% of the collisions occur below the height 2500 feet thereby indicating, landing and take-off are phases which are critical to the bird strikes and when most of the strikes take place.
The aircraft’s front facing parts namely, the windshield, edges of wing lead random, empennage, forward facing fuselages, propellers etc are more prone to bird strikes and are vulnerable (Marra, et al., 2009). Also it has been observed that more than 28% of the bird strikes the engine and around 26% of the total bird strikes impacts the wings making such areas of the aircraft extremely damaged due to the bird strikes. Hence, FAA has demanded extra provision of protection to be present in all the forward facing components of the aircrafts.
The causes of increased bird strikes can be directly attributed to the fact that aviation industry has boomed like never before and air traffic is growing at a rapid rate with every passing year. However, this is not the single reason behind the phenomenon of bird strikes. The second reason, for such increase is the very growth in the population of different species of large birds. Between the years of 1990 and 2013, common bird species which were responsible for majority of air strikes were eagles, hawks, vultures and waterfowl. In total there were more than 500 bird species which were confirmed to be associated with collisions with aircrafts. Since then wildlife data depicts that growth has been observed in the population of a large number of big birds species namely, bald eagles, while pelicans, sandhill cranes, wild turkeys etc (Dolbeer, 2009). As per Dolbeer et al, in 2014, their paper identified that only the species of snow goose population in North America grew from 2.1 million to that of 6.6 million in the last decade (Dolbeer, Seubert, & Begier, 2014). Nicholson and Reed in 2011 in their studies highlighted that the amount of damage which is caused in a typical bird collision directly is linked to the overall mass of the striking object. Hence, the already mentioned big birds would definitely cause more damage to the aircrafts when collision occurs. The Hudson river emergency landing of A320 airbus in 2009 as mentioned earlier is a perfect example of such. This incident proved the actual seriousness of bird and wildlife strikes to the safety of passengers and pilots travelling in the flight (Dolbeer, 2011).
Another major reason for the high incidence of aircraft strikes can be attributed to the development of new models of aircrafts having twin engines and turbine power which are more powerful than the older models and are way quieter than their previous predecessors. These present day aircrafts are stronger and safer but at the same time is very difficult for birds to detect the presence due to the silent nature (Dove, Rotzel, Heacker, & Weigt, 2008). In 1965 only 13% of the total fleet of turbine powered and had only 2 to 4 twin engine attached aircrafts. In comparison to such, within 4 decades around 92% of the total fleet is made up of twin engine aircrafts (Avrenli & Dempsey, 2014). Hence, with that of increase in the bird population and aviation traffic, the modern advancements of technology increased the probability of more bird strikes with time.
Anghileri et al in 2009 analyzed the very feasibility of different models like SPH Model, Eulerian and ALE Model, NM Model etc as means to investigate the very impact of bird strikes on the airframe of a turbofan. Finally, SPH model was identified which was found to be most suitable to accurately analyze the very dynamics of the event and can be used successfully to develop and design effective and efficient bird – proof structures (Anghileri, Castelletti, Molinelli, & Motta, 2009).
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While conducting the literature review, another factor arose, that with advancements of technology, bird strikes have increased as today’s aircrafts make less noise and hence birds and other wildlife creatures do not get notified by the lack of sound. This also serves as a key cause for increased bird strike incidents. However, due to the lack of time and other resources, in detail prevention management could not be handled but will be critically analyzed in the actual dissertation paper.
Null Hypothesis (Ho) – Bird strike is a rising problem and prevention mechanisms are required in Hong Kong International Airport to curb this problem
Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) – Bird strike is not a risking problem and prevention mechanisms are not required in Hong Kong International Airport to curb this problem
Nature of Research
Population & Sampling
Reliability & Validity
Assumptions & Limitations
- The candidates chosen for both qualitative and quantitative research have clear understanding about the phenomenon of bird strikes and have their own idea about how to eradicate such a phenomenon
- The sample chosen for the research are honest in their intention and providing knowledge known best to them and not modifying responses to guard the image of their employer
- The candidates chosen for the research have crystal clear understanding regarding the implications of the questions in the questionnaire
Along with assumptions there are a number of factors which limit the success of every research paper, and are known as the limitations of research (Wilkinson, 2003);
- Constraints of time, money and effort play a crucial role and hence the sample size was kept at a bare minimum of 25 employees for quantitative research and 5 for Qualitative research.
- Hong Kong International Airport employs a large number of employees. Respondents for this research paper were selected through snowball sampling and chances are that the sample chosen did not represent the neutral viewpoint of the organization.
- As all the respondents are hailing from the same employer, chances are there that, employees can manipulate their own answers in favour of their employer.
Since this is the proposal, whether any project management issues would be faced cannot be anticipated at this stage. This segment would be present in the main dissertation paper, which will highlight any issues faced by the researcher.
Social, Professional, Legal and ethical issues
- What is the association of wildlife/ birds with airports? How can they be kept separate?
- What are the factors which promote bird strikes? Similarly, what strategies should be adopted to reduce such phenomenon?
- What is a holistic prevention management? What strategies are followed by leading international airports worldwide?
- What is the incidence of bird strikes in Hong Kong International Airport till date? What mechanisms are in place?
- What are the most effective strategies for reducing bird strikes and incidence of birds within airports? Are they applicable to Hong Kong International Airport?
- What are the future technologies which can bring about a change in the management of bird strikes? How will the situation be 5 years from now as per you?