Middle Eastern Communities in The USA





In this present paper, we will discuss the social, legal, and cultural challenges faced by Arab and Muslim Americans. There are approximately 6-7.5 Million in the Unites States who are determined as the Americans. The diversity of American Muslim organization provides a large number of voices which address to the various issues for example issues as peacemaking, democracy, human rights and terrorism. The American Muslims faced various challenges for which Muslims organization are responding. After the 9/11 incident, the Muslims of Americas had confronted widespread suspicion, civil liberties challenges, a war of terrorism and others. The community of American Muslims consists of a large range of racial, ethical, cultural and professional groups, all of which contributes to the diverse opinion on contemporary issues for example peacemaking and conflict. The huge diversity of American Muslim community explains that there is no direct approach to confronting the contemporary issues, for example, human rights violations, domestic violence, and religious tolerance. The various challenges are faced by the community of Americans after the attack of 9/11. In the climate of Muslim suspicion, the muslins of America are in favor of political involvement and civil society institution.

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Purpose of paper

The paper focuses on the contemporary issues faced by the Arab population and the American Muslims.  The purpose is to understand the social, cultural, and legal challenges faced by the Arab and Muslim Americans. 

Literature review
History of migration

The immigration of the first generation was started from the Middle East in the late nineteen century. The immigration includes Christians from the Greater Syria which is the region of the Ottoman Empire and it comprises of Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon and Jordon. The immigration was done for an economic opportunity, and some come to escape from the religious prosecution in the 1920s. The Arab immigration was settled in the year of 1950s in which the immigrants was settled in the United States (Lawrence et al., 2013). In this group, approximately seventy percent were Muslims which come across the Middle East and mainly from the Egypt, Yemen, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Jordan. In the late 1960s, the ethnic and political consciousness becomes institutionalized in which various Arab American organizations were developed. The organization promotes for protecting the rights of Arab Americans and following the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States (Hassan et al., 2014). The Arab Americans were subjected to hate racial profiling, discrimination, and crimes. This develops the huge misunderstanding which separated various Americans and Arabs. 

Origin radicalism

The seizure of grand mosque occurred in the year 1979 when extremist insurgents were called for the overthrow of the house of Saud and took over Masjid-ul-haram which is located in the Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The seizure of Islamic holistic place was done by the Juhayman al-Otaybi, who is the member of the influential family in Najd. After the release of the takeover, the new Islamic revolutionary said to the radio listeners that it is done by the criminal American imperialism and international Zionism. It causes anti-American demonstrations which are demonstrated throughout the Muslim world. 


The media plays an important role in showing the challenge's faced by the Arab and Muslim Americans. The complete news was not delivered by the media, and the only filtered news was shown by them. The various challenges were faced by the Muslims which were shown by the media on the bias basis. What the topics chose by the media is not always correct, but they are showing less information than the actual incident. The pictures were taken at the time of various incidents which were shown by the media in another perspective due to which various challenges were faced by the Arab and American Muslims (Giroux et al., 2016). 
The fictional character of Sayid Jarrah on ABC's lost in which is portrayed by Naveen Andrews. The Sayid works as a communication officer in Special Republic Guard of Iran, and he is the skilled mechanical and radio engineer. The Sayid further served as a coercive interrogator for the company. In one incident he was ordered to interrogate the prisoner who was his childhood friend then he falls in love with her due to which he provides the road to redemption. So the company deals to identify the suicide bomber in Australia so that he will know the address of Nadia. In the six seasons of ABC lost the story of Sayid is reflected which shows the anti-terrorism and violent of the prisoner (Scolari et al., 2013). 
The women showed oppressed this are due to the victims of men dominance. The women in the Middle East countries are unable to influence the religious, social, political and cultural lives of the societies. The various issues were faced by the women's such as they are not allowed to go out of their houses in the dark, restricts to take part in the social events, and others. The women were live as prisoners in Saudi Arabia, and they are not allowed to leave their house without a male guardian (Mir et al., 2014). 


The results of migration from the first and second wave, and origin radicalism are explained below:

The legal challenges faced by the Arab and American Muslims include civil rights abuses, racial profiling, and others. Hate crime is the category which is developed as the special category of American criminal law. According to the hate crime Statistics Act, 1990 the information about the hate crimes is collected by the justice department. The five categories of bias and twelve predicate offenses are described by law. The law enforcement act, 1994 and violent crime control provides for the improved penalties in the case of hate crimes. The category of anti-Islamic is shown in the list of hate crimes which is published in the HCSA reports as a special category. The case of hate crime is reported to the local police then the data is transferred to the federal government as the report. If the Anti-Arab and Anti-Islamic hate crimes continue at the same level, then the government will take strict initiatives on it.
The civil right abuses are the official governmental policies which are created after September 11. The restrictive policies are faced by the Arab Americans after the incident of September 11. The racial profiling is defined as the suspect who is based on the false belief that the race, religion, and ethnicity of the person are not sufficient indicator of the potential criminal behavior (Halpern et al., 2015). In the year 1960 and 1970, the racial stereotype image of Muslim Americans was made, and pre-justice actions were taken on them. According to the pool, the total seventy-one percent of the Africa-Americans and sixty percent of the whites are supporting the ethnic profiling of the Arab Americans.
The violation act was carried out against the Arab and Americans Muslims which is conveyed by the official actions of the government (Berger et al., 2014). The criminal treatment is given to the Arab and Arab Americans which is more than the physical features. The community of Arab Americans was demonized and identified as the terrorist threat. The official policies of the government injure the legal rights of the Arab Americans. At the time of September 11 attack the Arab people who were living in the America for decades that were also scrutinized and arrested. The judges often deny the bails of Arab Americans.

2.Social challenges 

The social challenges faced by the Arab and American Muslims include racial discrimination, workplace discrimination, and others. The racial discrimination is faced by the Arab Americans which is an integral part of the huge discourse on hyphenated American identities and ethnic. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, the Arab Americans were targeted for the act of violence, hate, racial profiling, discrimination and economic ruin which results into the scrutiny of the government of Arab. The de-Americanization is faced by the Arab Muslims and America Muslims and they are cast as perpetual foreigners. The discrimination is faced by the Arab Americans, and hateful words are used for them which is shown from the action of de-Americanize to the Arab Americans population (Sue et al., 2015). For example the incident of Pakistani Americans in which they were threatened with death for destroying the country. The hatred and racial profiling are faced by the Arab Americans which shows that they are not true Americans. The assault is on the loyalty of Muslims irrespective of the community of the victims. The Muslims were treated as perpetual foreigners, and the community is permanently regarded as the immigrant America because they are not considered as the part of America's diversity.

3.Cultural challenges

The Arabs and Muslims were arrested by the police in thousand numbers, and they were treated very harshly and inhumanely despite knowing the fact that majority of them had committed no crime. The discrimination in the workplace is faced by the Arab and Muslims. According to the research, the total number of people working in the government department is twelve percent whereas the majority of workers are working in the private sectors which are eighty-eight percent in total. After the incident of September 11, the 904 charges were filed with the alleging post of EEOC which is known as the backlash discrimination. The charges were paid on the basis of the category which includes the national discrimination of an individual on the basis of religion. The main claims were harassment and wrongful discharge. The religious discrimination charges, in general, were made up to 1.9 percent of all the charges which were files in 1992, but in the year 2004, they were accounted for 3.1 percent. The various types of charges filed by Muslims alleging discrimination are doubles in the four years before the attack of 9/11 (Schwartz et al., 2013).

Role of government & community

The government can reduce the challenges faced by the Arab and American Muslims by reducing the discrimination on the basis of the religion and nationality. The government must remind the citizens that the Arab Muslims have the same constitution safeguards which help to reduce the discrimination against the Arab Americans by the government and public. The government is discriminating the whole community by addressing the focus on entire community as the terrorist who is a very form of discrimination. The law enforcement communities and prosecutors can help to prevent the discrimination which is done by the government against the Arab Americans through vigorously investigation and prosecution. The future acts can be inhabited by the vigorous investigation and prosecution by punishing the racial discriminators. The hate criminal law will be considered as one of the important tools in these efforts.
The education is the most powerful tool for changing the mindset of the people which helps to reduce the discrimination against the Arab Americans. The understanding of Arabs history, culture and others helps to understand the Arab culture which helps to reduce the discrimination against the Arabs Muslims. The misimpressions of Arab Muslims can be corrected through education by providing the opportunity to explore the generalities of culture and rich understanding of human contribution towards the contemporary life. It helps change the attitude of people towards the Arab ancestry through the rich understanding of Arab culture. The bias free textbook must be provided as the resources in the classrooms which help to provide a better understanding of Arabs world. The teachers must ensure that there no bias in the textbooks regarding the Islamic word and entire Arabs. The reliable information can be gathered through ADC and others which help to represent fair content for the better understanding of Ara world. 


It can be concluded that the various challenges were faced by the Arab and American Muslims such as social, legal, cultural and others. The immigration of Arab Muslims was mainly done for the economic opportunity and escape from the religious prosecution in the year 1950. The total number of Muslims immigrants was seventy percent which came from Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Jordan and others. The Arab Americans attack the United States on September 11, 2001, which was the main reason of misunderstanding due to which major challenges were faced by the Arab Americans. The grand mosque was seized by the Juhayman al-Otaybi which caused Anti-American demonstration. The media has delivered the information regarding the attacks to the public, but only the filtered information is shown by them due to which huge misunderstanding was created by the government and Arab Americans. The legal challenges include racial profiling, civil right abuses, hate crime and others. The civil right abuses are done by the official government policies due to which discrimination is faced by the Arab Muslims. The discrimination at the workplace is faced by the Arabs Americans and de-Americanization is faced by the Arad and American Muslims. The religious discrimination charges were made by the government which is another challenge faced by Arab Americans. 

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