Critial Analysis Summaritive Report: Cyber Crime


You are required to summarise the entire paper and comment on the issues raised by the paper.

You should find other resources that support or refute the views expressed in the paper and you are encouraged to cite these and discuss them.

Conclude the report by listing the issues raised by the paper, cases cited and be fully justified and to be referenced using the Harvard standard.



The study aims to focus on cyber crimes as a result of excessive availability and the user proficiency of computer systems in unethical hands. Thus, the paper aims to explore various digital forensic process and concerning the four particular forensic approaches it compares and contrasts their aspects and finally has proposed a model for employing a digital forensic procedure by taking into considerations all the shortcomings of the four approaches discussed. Thus, the study deals with the implementation of a secured digital forensic procedure so as to provide a consistent framework with minimum shortcoming and can easily be applied to the future digital technologies. These forensic procedures would be beneficial for the prosecution of the criminals associated with digital crimes and unethical hands. 

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The title of the paper is An Examination of Digital Forensic Models. The title of the paper presents a crystal clear idea of what the reader can impact from the article. The title of the paper grabs the attention of the readers and further accurately describes the content present in this paper. This paper is aptly titled as it focusses on the assessment and surveying of four different digital forensic model. The paper examines four different methodologies where a direct comparison and contrast of these methodologies has been done effectively. And by overviewing their shortcomings, it provides an adaptation to a definite digital forensic model that can help in eradicating the criminals associated with the cyber and digital crimes. This thorough examination of the four digital forensic model and then implementing a new effective digital model that has efficiently addressed all the flaws of these four methodologies.
The statement of purpose mentioned the abstract is similar to the statement provided in the introduction. Both the statement explore the development of the digital forensic processes and both state the comparison between the four digital forensics processes. The abstract however provides a generalized background a gives the reader a deeper insight towards this field and additionally gives an overview of the advantages of the proposed model, which the statement of purpose in the introduction lacks. The statement of purpose provided under the abstract is more defined and detailed information as compared to the statement of the purpose of the introduction. However, both the statement of purposes is clearly defined and provide detailed information on the basis of this study. The statement of purpose is clearly defined with all possible minute details towards the end of the abstract as well as the introduction. 
The introduction gives a generalized background to the study of digital forensic sciences and gives an overview to the reader regarding the issue of unethical computing and other related information. The introduction sequentially starts by explaining the digital age and the use of computer systems in almost all fields. The introduction then shifts the attention of the reader towards the increasing cyber crimes. However, the introduction could be made more substantial by providing relevant references for substantiating the claims that the made in the first few sentence regarding the developments in a stable methodology as provided in the A New Approach of Digital Forensic Model for Digital Forensic Investigation. (O, Chris & David, 2011)
The introduction could have made the motive clearer by differentiating the paper more by using other applied papers. The author could have provided another sentence by giving examples of some of the applications related to the cybercrime with appropriate references.
The paper maintains that many researchers have tried to create some rudimentary guidelines, but these papers and methods were discussed without taking into account a generalized process and much emphasis have been laid on the details of the technology. The paper initiates the methods by discussing various models and their shortcomings and limitations. The paper discussed The Coroner's Toolkit which was constructed by Farmer and Venema followed by the model Mandia and Prosise, U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and finally Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRW). The model was thoroughly discussed and then a new proposed model was mentioned by sequentially. However, when compared to studies like O, I., Chris, D., & David, D. (2011). A New Approach of Digital Forensic Model for Digital Forensic Investigation; Poonia, A. (2014). Analysis of Existing Models & Proposed Cyber Crime Investigation Model etc. have provided the models in a sequential manner with detailed information and have included the tables and figures whenever necessary so as to provide an informational look to the whole paper which the concerned paper lack.
The study could have taken clues and ideas from various papers that have discussed the four reference models and have simplified the information and mentioned in the paper briefly. Furthermore, the proposal of the idea seem to be innovative and thus denies all the claims of having duplicated the information or taken from the study. The proposed model is innovative and new.
The paper has taken four primary forensic digital model and then by analyzing their shortcoming and limitations has proposed an effective model. However, the methods used for displaying the content and information on the paper lacks definition. The author should have provided access information regarding the models and their shortcoming, presenting them in a detailed data would have been informational and guiding for the reader as given in various papers mentioned above. The models would have been informational for the readers if provided in a tabular form. Further, the methodology of the steps involved in the models has also been explained briefly in the paper “A New Approach of Digital Forensic Model for Digital Forensic Investigation” (O, I., Chris, D., & David, D.). Further, the paper lacks figure diagrams for the thorough understanding of the steps required during the implementation of the models as provided in the paper Common Phases of Computer Forensics Investigation Models. International Journal Of Computer Science And Information Technology, 3(3), 17-31. (Yusoff, Y., Ismail, R., & Hassan, Z. (2011))
The methods used for clear understanding of the paper depicts all the needed methods for discussing the relevant models that have been used in the digital forensic technology . However, they lack a clear understanding and have just been mentioned with brief information. The information has been imparted in a sequential manner, wherein each model has been discussed and then finally the proposed model has been discussed in the end. The steps used in their implementations have just been mentioned without much discussion on these steps. Various papers have mentioned the same models with a detailed information along with diagrams and figures to make the paper easier and interesting for the readers to read. A sub-category could have been provided during discussion of the Examine Non-Volatile storage under the subcategory of the DFRW model. 
The paper lacks tables, figures and illustrations and therefore, the information is not mentioned in a correct and detailed manner. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed model could have been mentioned in a table for the clear understanding of the reader. The reader goes get an insight on various parameters that are used to calibrate a proposed model. However, the data and information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed models have been put wisely for the reader to interpret the essence of the proposed model. Although the tabular form of the advantages and disadvantages could have been informational still the data collected is enough for the reader to get an understanding of the proposed model.
As no data has been presented in a tabular form or the illustrations, no discrepancies are present between the text and the tables or the images.
The proposed model information and data has been presented in an effective manner wherein the proposed model, and its characteristics have been mentioned first leading to the full comprehensive assessment of the proposed model. The paper, having discussed the proposed model, further presents the advantages and disadvantages of the model.
The paper presents an important result, and hence it merits higher discussions over it. The proposed model is believed to have overcome all the shortcomings present in the four proposed reference models . Namely, The paper discussed The Coroner's Toolkit which was constructed by Farmer and Venema followed by the model Mandia and Prosise, U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and finally Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRW). The author could have discussed the four models in a detailed manner thoroughly. And could also have listed the shortcomings in a tabular form or presented in a thoughtful method. This way the results have been discussed as provided in the statement of purpose and justified it fully. The paper has sequentially discussed the four proposed model and then listed their shortcoming. Then the paper, as stated in the objective, proposed a model covering all the shortcomings and came up with a new model minus all the shortcomings and hence can be seen as an improvised model in the field. However, the proposed model still has some disadvantages and fails to cover all the areas of the concerned field. Thus, the author has achieved the task of discussing the reference model and then the proposed model. 
The paper has discussed the four models namely The paper discussed The Coroner's Toolkit which was constructed by Farmer and Venema followed by the model Mandia and Prosise, U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and finally Digital Forensics Research Workshop (DFRW). The paper discussed the models along with details of the proposed model and an overview on the advantage and disadvantage of that particular model. The paper discusses the shortcoming of the proposed model that was developed from amalgamating the four reference model. The shortcomings or the limitations of the model have given the paper an edge providing the conclusion to provide a persuasive restatement of the research problem, giving the readers an outlook towards the information that was presented throughout the paper. The paper in its concluding paragraph reflected the evidence and the comprehensive discussions on the models and related digital forensic models and technology. The interpretation has been correctly mentioned without the information being too far-stretched focusing only on the central part of the essay.
The interpretation of the research paper provides us with an efficient model minus all the shortcomings of the models that were taken as a reference model. But the paper itself states some of the limitation of the proposed model mentioning the fact that the same work has been done for a decade and has been accelerating and on verge of becoming robust still a particular technology with no limitations has not been implemented yet. All the papers used as a reference concluded in a similar way by stating the need for a digital forensic model having structured framework for rapid development of the operational methodologies that can easily be peer-reviewed and can be validated as well as tested as soon as possible. The all the reference papers have developed and refined a method from the amalgamation of the various available methods and assessing their shortcomings giving the proposed model higher credibility than the models utilized for the study.
Consider the published research on this topic. Have all key studies been considered?
The researches may wish to mention the as to why the author is proposing the new model and the dire need of implementation of an effective digital forensic model and its importance in prosecuting the cyber crimes. The researcher desire to further explain the motivation towards the motivation towards this project and his choice of the reference models and attach the assessed information with relevant information and references with other studies as well so as to demonstrate the dire need of the project and its importance in catching as well as prosecuting the people behind the unethical cyber crimes and other technological hacking.
The conclusion sterns the readers regarding the increasing number of the cyber crimes being taking place globally and with the change in the technological era change in technology is bound to take place. The paper directs the readers towards the crimes of being more sophisticated with the passage of time. The paper suggests the progression of the tool along with the digitalization and therefore the author emphasis on the development of a rigid and consistent methodology that has the capability to handle all the concerned areas. That methodology should apply to all the digital crimes as well as the futuristic crimes. The author has stated that a review of all the models along with their comparison and contrast would be beneficial to come up with an ultimate technology by their amalgamation as it would highlight the ways to eradicate their shortcoming and deliver a technology with no or as minimum shortcomings as possible.
The article is intended for the International Journal of Digital Evidence. The major topics covered by this journal include Computational approaches to digital crime preventions, Computer Virology, Crime scene imaging, Criminal investigative criteria and standard of procedure on computer crime, Cryptological techniques and tools for crime investigation, Data carving and recovery, Digital document examination and Digital Evidence, etc. This paper deals with the cyber crimes and related models to catch and prosecute the people behind the unethical cyber crimes and other technological hacking. This paper relates to the journal and the topics under it. Therefore, I strongly believe that the target journal is apt for this article. Additionally International Journal of Digital Evidence is a respected journal and therefore the publications in this concerned journal will definitely ensure a wide reach among the readers and hence, the author's work will get a good exposure. The article further gives a clear discussion towards the models and their shortcoming and detailed information on the proposed model. This research will, therefore, attract the researchers working in the same field. And further, the research would also give insights to the researchers who are working on related topics.
The abstract gives a decent, summed up the foundation of the subject that rapidly gives the reader a valuation for the extensive variety of uses for this innovation. Nonetheless, to make the dynamic more significant, the author may wish to give a few references to substantiate the claim made in the primary sentence (that is, give references to different gatherings who do or have done research around there). The second sentence supportively clarifies the inspiration for the exploration to present and potential subsidizing organizations. In any case, to make the inspiration clearer and to separate the paper some more from other connected papers, the creator may wish to give another sentence giving illustrations of a portion of the uses of this innovation, alongside suitable references. I think the inspirations for this study should be made clearer. Specifically, the significance of (a) the prerequisites of a characterized scientific innovation, and (b) the need of picking a suitable model could be clearer. One approach to exhibit this association would be to refer to references (if conceivable) that show that wrong remaking procedures can prompt sub-par comes about. I think the inspiration for the present research would be clearer if the creator could give a more straightforward connection between the significance of picking a chose model and amalgamation of the models.
The paper has been commendably structured. The paper starts with giving an insight to the research being discussed in the paper. The abstract describes the content of the paper effectively and covers the aim effectively. Further, the main points have been carefully outlined. This provides a clear and helpful overview to the reader. The introduction has carefully set the main body of the paper effectively. All the points and the objective have been clarified in a detailed manner. All the limitations and the shortcoming have been recognized, and all the parameters of these models have been briefed to the reader. 
The principle body of the report has placed examination of the material. The realities and confirmation you have assembled proficiently that are ought to be investigated and talked about with particular reference to the issue or issue. The focuses are assembled and orchestrated in a request that is sensible and simple to take after. The headings and subheadings are mentioned reasonably to give structure to the research paper. 
In the conclusion, the author has demonstrated the general criticalness of what has been secured. The author remembers the most vital focuses that have been made in the report and has highlighted the most focal issues or discoveries. 
The paper is presented in a straightforward manner imparting as much knowledge as the paper can. The writing is technical maintaining the standard of the article and the associated journal. The writer has tried to present his study in a logical manner so as to attract as many readers as he can. Further, the introduction has been stated clearly and imparts considerable knowledge in a way that the reader not well aware of the context might be able to relate to it and can understand the article fully. However, the author has not mentioned any tabular form of data, which could have been more effective in letting the reader understand the topics fully.
The paper is written clearly and logically so as to present the findings and recent information along with the proposed model effectively. The paper efficiently gathers information regarding the reference models and their shortcomings and the author has proficiently diffused them all together to come up with his proposed model. The paper, therefore, is beneficial to shed some light on the alarming issue of cyber crimes and hacking. Finally, the research has been thoroughly done for proposing the model and would be helpful for other researchers working in the same field.

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  • O, I., Chris, D. and David, D. (2011). A New Approach of Digital Forensic Model for Digital Forensic Investigation. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 2(12).

  • Poonia, A. (2014). Analysis of Existing Models & Proposed Cyber Crime Investigation Model. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, 10(11), p.78.

  • Yusoff, Y., Ismail, R. and Hassan, Z. (2011). Common Phases of Computer Forensics Investigation Models. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, 3(3), pp.17-31.

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