WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS & NETWORKS
extends what presented in the lecture course or on a topic that is within the scope of
wireless communications and networks but not covered in the lecture course (feel
free to check with me if you are unsure about your topic).
Based on the topic you have selected, in the evaluation section of the paper you
need to provide some simple simulation results and analysis using any of the Matlab
/ NS2 or 3 / OMNET++ or other related simulators, open source or proprietary. Your
selection should be unique to you by using the arithmetic part of your KU number for
setting up your simulations, e.g. fundamental frequency or distance. Furthermore, it
should include the following steps:
- provide a scenario, e.g. rural environment.
- design the network, e.g. give number of application servers, base stations, routers
and end users.
- evaluate the performance of the selected algorithm or protocol, e.g. scheduler,
mobility management protocol, resource management algorithms etc, in terms of
throughput, delay, jitter or any other evaluation metric/statistic you feel is relevant
to your design and scenario.
- build a system/network analysis based on these simulation results and finally
- provide recommendations and comments on your results.
The paper should be presented in a form suitable for professional journal publication
with two columns of 12 point text with headings of 14 bold point text and should be
consistent with the following guidelines.
Title of Paper in 16 bold point characters
Name of author
A Study on Mobile Ad Hoc Network using Routing Algorithm Evaluation
II. MANET SCENARIO
III. MANET DESIGN
Fig 1: MANET Design
The remarkable features of Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) bring this advancement unbelievable open entryway together with extraordinary troubles .All the center points or devises able to deal with themselves intensely the correspondence between the each other and to give the fundamental framework helpfulness without settled system or we can call it ventral association, It suggests that upkeep, controlling and association, and so on must be done between every last one of the inside focuses. At last, reason that the Ad Hoc Nodes or gadgets are troublesome and more personality boggling than different remote systems. Accordingly, Ad Hoc Networks shape kind of bunches to the viable use of such a bizarre procedure. In the recent years, the comprehensive group bent up plainly perceived to utilize all the progression so exhaustively and the comprehensive group's future living conditions are climbing, in context of data asset gave by the relationship of various correspondence structures for customers in addition we have seen a snappy change in the field of Mobile Computing in light of the way that the expansion not costly, widely accessible remote gadgets another little contraptions, for example, solitary correspondence like PDAs, PCs, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs),handhelds, furthermore there's a great measure of standard home mechanical congregations, for example, an impelled cameras, cooking stoves, articles of clothing washers, coolers and indoor controllers, with figuring and passing on powers joined. Build up this zone to changed into an absolutely certain thus widely . With the predominant piece of this, the advances must be shaped the monster and new standard of unavoidable taking care of, that including the new measures, new contraptions, associations, gadgets, conventions and other structures.
IV. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
Proactive calculation for the most part called Time Driven Routing estimation, hone courses past anybody’s capacity to see self-overseeing of development requests. Each middle uses controlling data to store the district data of different focus focuses in the structure and this data is then used to move information among various focuses in the system. Objective Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) The strategy for DSDV Each middle point keeps up a table with a zone conceivable goal. Each segment illustrates: The goal identifier. The going with skip on the course to the goal. The division (to the degree jump) to the target. A social occasion number that shows how new the course is. Focus focuses trade their coordinating tables with their neighbors now and again. OLSR is a consider proactive ricochet by bob organizing custom. It gives the crisp technique for target base of table driven approach . It is a streamlining of unadulterated affiliation state figuring in spontaneous structure. The courses are continually quickly open when required in perspective of its proactive nature. The key idea of the custom is the use of “multipoint trades” (MPR). Each inside point picks a strategy of its neighbor focus focuses as MPR. Each inside point impacts a quick overview of its one skip to neighbor. Neighbor focus point trades their rundowns with each other. In light of the got records, each middle point makes its MPR . Iv. The general population from MPR is the key focuses that can retransmit the affiliation state data endeavoring to force the surge. Right when an inside direct wishes toward transmit change to a host to which it has no course, it will pass on a course request (RREQ) message that will be overpowered limitedly to various focus interests. This causes control advancement overhead to be dynamic and it will get a handle on a concealed yield when beginning such correspondence. AODV plots three sorts of control messages for course fortify: RREQ – A course request message is transmitted by an inside requiring a course to a center point. This regard is set to a predefined regard at the fundamental transmission and connected at retransmissions. Retransmissions happen if no answers are gotten. Data wraps holding up to be transmitted should be kept up locally and transmitted by a FIFO noteworthy when a course is set. RREP – A course answer message is unicasted back to the originator of a RREQ if the gatherer is either inside point using the requested address, or it has a key course to the requested address. The reason one can unicast the message back, is that each course sending a RREQ stores a course back to the originator. Iii. RERR – Nodes screen the conspiracy status of next skips in one of kind courses. Unequivocally when a connection breakage in a dynamic course is seen, a RERR message is used to reprimand unmistakable concentration centers concerning the event interface. With a particular silly fixation to pull in this checking structure, each center point keeps a "predecessor once-finished", containing the IP address for each it neighbors that are probably going to use it as a next ricochet towards each objective.
4.2 MANET Performance Evaluation
Throughput: Throughput can be measured in terms of the amount of data that is received by the receiver in the time given.
Throughput = packets received / time of simulation
Dropped Packets: Each one of the bundles that must be dropped in light of compactness or full lines or by aggressors are contained in this arrangement. The amount of dropped data packs may be as a result of the association disillusionment. Essentially, it addresses the amount of bundles that sent by the source centre point and disregard to reach to the objective centre point.
Dropped packets = no of packets sent – no of packets received
Average end-to-end delay: Time difference between the packets that is sent and received between the networks can be referred as the End-to-end packet delay . Delay of packet can be measured when the packet leaves the sender machine and the packet sent to receiver device. The packet delay can be made due to the medium access protocols and propagation channels.
E2E delay [packet_id] = received time [packet_id] – sent time [packet_id]
Normalize Routing Load: Operating cost evaluation and routing efficiency can be used for the load efficiency of normalized routing. The ration of the routing sent and received can be represented for the normalized routing load representation. It can be denoted as the packets that are transmitted per data packet.
NRL = number of routing packets/ number of received packets
Packet delivery fraction: Number of packets that are sent successfully to the receiver can be represented as packet delivery fraction. It can be evaluation by making the division operation on number of packets sent and received. Their percentage will be measured as the packet fraction
PDF = (received packets total / sent packets total) * 100
Average Jitter: The average value measured from the sequential packets that are sent between the end delays termed as average jitter.
Jitter = | (end-to-end delay (n+1)) – (end-to-end delay (n))|
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V. SIMULATION RESULT
Fig 2: Graphical representation of simulation
Thus the figure 2 represents about the simulation that is done in the MANET scenario for the above discussed environment. The throughput has been calculated for the packet transmission that is done in the different time duration. This can be helpful for finding the number of packets that will be lost during the time of transmission. Normalized routing loads can be calculated for finding the number of packets that has been sent to the receiver. The extended execution for the trusted centre points is a result of the going with trust decisions - enduring packs just from a trusted past hop, sending packages just to a trusted next-bob, multiplying simply place stock in groups, and using just trusted in courses. The result asserts that the trust show is viably prepared to set up genuine courses, paying little heed to the growing degrees of poisonous centre points. Nevertheless, the probability of finding a trusted course reduces, and in turns the PDR, as the degree of dangerous centre points outperforms the degree of place stock in centre points.
 Jagtar, S, 2013. A Review Paper on Introduction to Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET), [Online]. 2/4, 143-150. Available at: https://www.ijltet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/20.pdf [Accessed 29 January 2018].
 Dorri, A, 2015. SECURITY CHALLENGES IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS: A SURVEY. International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey (IJCSES), [Online]. 6/1, 15-31. Available at: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1503/1503.03233.pdf [Accessed 29 January 2018].
 Putra, S, 2010. An Overview on mobile ad hoc networks for the existing protocols and appliations. International Journal of Applications of Graph Theory, [Online]. 2/1, 87-105. Available at: http://airccse.org/journal/graphhoc/papers/0310jgraph7.pdf [Accessed 29 January 2018].
 Mohsin Rahman Salfi, U, 2018. A STUDY OF MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS -ISSUES AND CHALLENGES. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, [Online]. 6/7, 93-96. Available at: http://ijarcs.info/index.php/Ijarcs/article/viewFile/2574/2562 [Accessed 29 January 2018].
 Bang, Ankur, 2013. MANET : History,Challenges And Applications. International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), [Online]. 2/9, 249-251. Available at: http://ijaiem.org/volume2issue9/IJAIEM-2013-09-27-063.pdf [Accessed 29 January 2018].
 H, Banwari, 2013. Routing Algorithms for MANET: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), [Online]. 2/9, 193-197. Available at: http://www.ijeit.com/vol%202/Issue%209/IJEIT1412201303_35.pdf [Accessed 29 January 201