- Edward Snowden: The Whistle-blower Behind the NSA Surveillance Revelations
- Executive summary
- What’s going on?
- What are the facts?
- What are the issues?
- Who is affected?
- What are the ethical issues and implications?
- What can be done about it?
- What are the options?
- Which option is the best- and why?
Edward Snowden: The Whistle-blower Behind the NSA Surveillance Revelations
What’s going on?
According, to other they support Edward Snowden they say that he is a real Hero and not traitor. As he revealed the classified information of NSA programs which is against the civil rights and violating the constitution and human privacy rights.
What are the facts?
On June 2013 The Guardian and Washington Post disclosed that Edward as their source for the intelligence related leaks. On June 2013 Federal prosecutor break a complaint filed in US District Court in Virginal on 14 June 2013, charging Snowden with spying and theft of government property. On 22 June 2013 senior administrative officials say US has contacted authorities in Hong Kong to hand over Snowden. On June 30, 2013, US government revoked Snowden's passport. On December 17, 2014, he posted an open letter to Brazil, offering to help investigate US surveillance of Brazilian citizens. On July 28, 2015, The White House rejected a petition to pardon and maintains its position that Snowden should return to the US. Although petition contains over 167000, signatures supporting Snowden. Finally, on January 17, 2017, Russia extends Snowden's asylum until 2020, and granted nationality also later.
What are the issues?
- Issues of revealing the classified information. Highly confidential information has been revealed.
- Issues of public privacy. As every calls and text have been in the catch and record with NSA.
- Issues of nation’s status and fame. Another country may put the question on US security system, which may hamper the fame and status of US.
Who is affected?
List of all stakeholder who is affected by the action of Snowden of revealing classified information to the US press is as follows.
- NSA organization affected a lot by the act of Snowden. As most of the classified information has been revealed by Snowden which depict that NSA is using PRISM which captures and record all the chats and audio of general public, so a question regarding civil rights is raised against NSA. So it will hamper the Goodwill of National Security agency of the country (Stake et al., 2013).
- US Government will also deeply affected by the act of Snowden US Government is now not able to cover this by just jailing or murdering him as it will lose the status in regards of security and civil rights policy.
- The general public as their privacy is hampered. So they are also affected much, and now they feel unsafe in sharing their information on social site.
- Telecom companies like Microsoft, Facebook, Apple, and Google, also get affected much by the Snowden act as people will lose trust in regards of security and privacy from Telecom Companies (Lucas et al., 2014). In this way, people will resist to use it. Finally, Telecom Companies will lose their trustworthiness and Goodwill.
What are the ethical issues and implications?
The main ethical issues are whether US intelligence professionals regard the US Constitution as supreme law in America or non-disclosure contracts with individual agencies or the US government (Burmeister et al., 2000). Unethically telecom companies are providing the private information to the agency which is against the civil right and constitution. It has an adverse consequence on the Goodwill of the companies.
Edward Snowden Utilitarianism theory
- Loss of revenue to US companies
- New research and investment in secure emails, chats, cell phones, network protocols.
What can be done about it?
So this issues can be resolved by putting Edward Snowden into imprisonment and charging a penalty because he had hamper and affected the dignity and security of NSA and Nation as a whole.
- Put him in imprisonment.
- Charged penalty.
- Charge penalty on him and bring him back to the US and ensure to strengthen the security as he is expert in computer and Technology so he should be placed on the same position but to strengthen the security.
What are the options?
List of possible options is as follows.
- Charge Edward Snowden heavy penalty for disgracing and harming the dignity of NSA and hampering the National Security of the Nation.
- Put Edward Snowden into imprisonment as his act hamper the NSA dignity, fame and put the question of National Security Agency Trustworthiness.
- Call back the Edward Snowden and put him in the same position as a way to strengthen the security system NSA, as he is very much competent in computer and technology. US Government can use Edward Snowden as a good resource for strengthening the security system in National Security Agency.
Which option is the best- and why?
As Edward Snowden should not be put into imprisonment because the US will not be able to take advantage of his capabilities. As he is very much skillful in computer and technology so he can put back to the same position in the organization to ensure the security. He can be put to back its position to strengthen the security system.
- The primacy of the public interest. According to this Ethic, one should put the public interest at first then his interest so here Edward Snowden did the same he revealed the classified information of NSA programs. As this NSA program was against the civil rights and fundamental rights of people.
- The Enhancement of the Quality of life (Bowern et al., 2006). According, to this Ethic one, should strive to enhance the quality of life of those who are affected by your work. So here Snowden did the same he put himself in danger and revealed the information in a way to improve the quality of life of an affected person by his action or work. As he raised the concern about individual privacy.
- Honesty, this implies that you should be honest in your work skills, knowledge, and organization, but here Edward Snowden found dishonest to his organization as he was working for National Security Agency, but he revealed the classified information of the Organization secret Programs. Here he found dishonest towards his organization but honest towards the general public.
- Competence, this implies that you should work competently and diligently for your interest holder or stakeholder here, Edward Snowden Found both competences as well as non-competence, some say that he revealed the information for the sake for public interest and to favor the civil right whereas others argue that his act was not good because he hamper the security concern of the Nation and also hamper the dignity of NSA.
- Professional development implies that you should develop yourself as well as you are responsible for developing your colleagues and staff. Here Snowden is not able to develop the professional quality in his colleague and staff.
- Professionalism, it implies that you need to enhance the integrity of the society and the respect of its members for each other. Here Edward Snowden found to fail in this regard.
Lyon, D., 2014. Surveillance, Snowden, and big data: Capacities, consequences, critique. Big Data & Society, 1(2), p.2053951714541861.
Gellman, B., 2013. Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission’s accomplished. The Washington Post, 23.
Stake, R.E., 2013. Multiple case study analysis. Guilford Press.
Landau, S., 2013. Making sense from Snowden: What's significant in the NSA surveillance revelations? IEEE Security & Privacy, 11(4), pp.54-63.
Lucas, G.R., 2014. NSA management directive# 424: Secrecy and privacy in the aftermath of Edward Snowden. Ethics & International Affairs, 28(1), pp.29-38.
Burmeister, O.K., 2000. Applying the ACS code of ethics. Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, 32(2), pp.107-120.
Bowern, M., Burmeister, O., Gotterbarn, D., and Weckert, J., 2006. ICT Integrity: Bringing the ACS Code of Ethics up to date. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 13(2).