Tourism Theories and Practices



Introduction includes:
Firstly, what this assignment does;
Which of course is a comparison of themes and topics and a critical review, so you need to include what
criteria you have chosen to conduct your critical review about – to do this review the instructions for
the Assessment (which ask you to specifically consider the aims, results and conclusions) and Slide 5 of
the ASD “How to approach Assessment 1”, and you’ll see this relates to the questions you ask when
critically reading. So you would consider reviewing and comparing each article based on …
(Slide 6) - With regards to the aims, results and conclusions evaluate:
Are they clear/ how?
Are they substantiated by evidence/ how?
Are there biases?/ what
Are there limitations?/ what
What are the strengths?/ what
Are there gaps?/ what
So you could say here something like “the critical review section specifically addresses the aims, results
and conclusions of the articles with respect to clarity, presentation, evidence provided and whether
the conclusion related directly with the aim.”
In this last case you will be interested in seeing if the articles achieve and present in their results and
conclusion what they said at the beginning (in their aim) it intended to do.
In the process of conducting this review some of the things listed above (from Slide 6, and Slide 5) may
become apparent and so you include these in your critical review section when you get there.
Then name the journal you chose and it’s major themes (information gained from the journal’s aims
and/or scope), that is what type of research and articles does it focus upon and publish, e.g. the Journal
of Convention and Event Tourism (see the next 2 slides about where to find this information)…





 Critical review of the research papers help a reader obtain deeper insight on the topic which is analyzed in the paper. The critical review also helps the readers to identify the gaps and further needs for research on a subject. In the current assessment, two articles, published in Sociologija i proctor and the Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business Innovation. The key concept in both the articles is branding of the ‘green’ or environment –friendly organizations in the tourism industry. In the current assessment, the similarities and differences between the two researches are identified. The assessment also includes discussion on the degree to which the articles have clearly demonstrated their aims, objectives and findings, use of evidences in the research, any biasness shown in the research, strengths and limitations of the researches. The critical review also aims to find out the gaps in the researches, if any.
 Similarities / differences of the articles:
Both the articles center on the same concept, ‘green tourism’ and its impact on the tourist industry. However, the use of primary data and analysis method is different in both the studies. In one research, only quantitative primary data is used while on the other both qualitative and quantitative primary data is used.


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 Critical review:


The critical review is done on basis of clarity of the articles, use of evidences, any shown biasness, limitations in the research, strengths and gaps identified in the study.
 Clarity in the articles: In the article, ‘Branding the Green Tourism in Macedonia’, the aims and objectives of the study are stated clearly. The study focuses on analyzing how Macedonia is being branded as a destination of green tourism or eco-tourism (Petrevsk & Cingoski, 2017). Aim of the study is identifying how stakeholders of the industry are mitigating the environmental issues and it is enhancing competitiveness of Macedonia as an eco-friendly tourist destination . Both the qualitative and the quantitative research is done in the study. In this case, findings of both the study are described clearly.
 In the article, ‘Be green and you are branded: Case of Small to Medium Enterprises in Zimbabwe Tourism Sector’ , the development of green tourism in the small and medium organizations of the tourism industry in Zimbabwe is assessed. The objectives, research methodologies and the finding s are stated clearly in the study.
Use of evidence and law:
In the ‘Branding the Green Tourism in Macedonia’ article, the quantitative study is done to assess effectiveness of the environmental policies adopted by the organizations in the tourism industry in Macedonia. Use of performance indicators gave a real-life insight of the incorporation of environmental policies in tourism industry of the country. Use of quantitative data ensures that the study is showing the actual facts on the research topic. In addition, the study also uses a number of peer-reviewed secondary sources to assess the existing theories related to green tourism. Use of the authentic sources indicates that findings of the research are highly valid and reliable.
 Use of primary data gives evidence of the real-life application of concepts demonstrated in the research (Taylor et al.2015; Silverman, 2016). In case of the ‘Be green and you are branded: Case of Small to Medium Enterprises in Zimbabwe Tourism Sector’ article the qualitative and quantitative primary data is used along with the secondary data which made the research highly reliable.


 Presence of biasness: 


In case of the ‘Branding the Green Tourism in Macedonia’ the survey was conducted among the managers and supervisors of three, four and five star hotels in Macedonia. As the data is collected from all levels of the organization, it is evident that no biasness is shown to any special type of organization while assessing effects of the environmental policies in the tourism industry.
 Use of random sampling reduces the chance of any biasness in sample selection. In the, ‘Be green and you are branded: Case of Small to Medium Enterprises in Zimbabwe Tourism Sector’ article, the stratified random sampling is used to select the sectors. So, the chance of biasness is mitigated.


 Presence of limitations:


 The study in ‘Branding the Green Tourism in Macedonia’ is conducted on the hotels only in Macedonia. However, the effects of adoption of environmental policies in other stakeholders of the tourism industry such as the travel agencies , the transportation partners and the restaurants of the tourist spots are not assessed. So, it can be stated that the research is not providing a holistic view on the green tourism in Macedonia and its effects on competitiveness of the country. 
In ‘Be green and you are branded: Case of Small to Medium Enterprises in Zimbabwe Tourism Sector’ article, the research is done on the small and medium organization only (Chigora & Zvavahera, 2015) . However , activities of the large enterprises in the tourism industry of the country are not assessed here which can be considered as a limitation.


 Strengths of the researches:


The research  on  tourism  industry   of  Macedonia is done using well defined framework and using huge amount of primary and secondary data. Use of huge data set is strength of the research as it enhanced reliability of the findings (Lewis, 2015).
 In case of ‘Be green and you are branded: Case of Small to Medium Enterprises in Zimbabwe Tourism Sector’ article, use of unbiased data can be considered as the strength as it makes the findings accurate.


 Presence of gaps:


The research in ‘Branding the Green Tourism in Macedonia’ does not shed any light on the activities of other stakeholders in the tourism industry. So, further research can be conducted on activities of other stakeholders to promote green tourism in Macedonia.
In ‘Be green and you are branded: Case of Small to Medium Enterprises in Zimbabwe Tourism Sector’ research , no information is provided on the activities of large organizations. It can be considered as the gap in the research.




 The current review indicates that both the researches are showing valuable findings. However , each of the articles has own strengths and limitations and provides scopes for further study. Despite the similarities, there are difference in data collection and data analysis techniques used in both the researches.




Chigora, F., & Zvavahera, P. (2015). Be green and you are branded: Case of Small to Medium Enterprises in Zimbabwe Tourism Sector. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business Innovation, 2(2), 1-13.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475.
Petrevska, B., & Cingoski, V. (2017). Branding the green tourism in Macedonia. Sociology and Space, 55(207 (1)), 101-116.
Silverman, D. (Ed.). (2016). Qualitative research. Sage.
Taylor, S. J., Bogdan, R., & DeVault, M. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.

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