• Provides appropriate reason to study false memories
• Describes procedure used to create DRM false memories [2 marks]
hypothesis) [4 marks]
• Identifies gap in the literature that current research will fill [2 marks]
THE HUMAN MIND
Table of Contents
b) The critical overview of the DRM false memories 4
1. Procedure used for the creation of the DRM false memories 4
2. The role of Activation Monitoring in DRM false memories 4
3. Background research 4
4. Explanation of the impact of imagery on the DRM false memories 5
5. Background research 6
c) Rationale and aim of the present study 7
1. Gap of the previous researches 7
2. Rationale of the current experiment 7
3. Aim of the present study 7
4. Three conditions imposed on the current study 7
d) Hypothesis of the study 8
Reference List 9
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DRM false memories is a paradigm that was postulated by Deese, Roediger, and McDermott which relates the cognitive psychology of the human mind utilized for studying the false in humankind. In this, the procedure is that the false memories are elicited when the participants are given a closely-related list of words (Dewhurst et al. 2016). The main theory behind this paradigm is a strength as well as the gist of word association. According to this, gist extraction is responsible for false recall and that happens at the time of encoding. False memories are a psychological factor that inhibits the psychological progress of the human mind and thus, it is needful to study the procedures attached with the DRM false memories paradigm (Conway, Gathercole & Cornoldi, 2014).
In the current hypothesis, the DRM false memory paradigm has been explained on the basis of the previous researches of two eminent scholars. In addition, the gap of the previous research, as well as rationale of the current experiment, has also been included in this context.
a) Reasons for studying false memories
Every day a large number of information is gathered by individual people among whom some information is prioritized and people try to recall them with extreme effort. This is also known as the encoding of the gathered information (Toglia et al. 2017). However, a specific mechanism is underlined with this prioritization process and the consequences are also underestimated in this regard. Nevertheless, at the time of giving the highest effort in recalling a particular subject matter, high level of memory accuracy is needed which is closely linked with the incorporation of false memories (Frenda et al. 2014).
b) Critical overview of the DRM false memories
1. Procedure used for the creation of the DRM false memories
Procedure attached to the DRM false memories paradigm is actually a psychological process of the human mind. In this procedure, the participants are given a list of specific words that are closely related. Basically, the false memories are elicited in this process. The participants are asked to recognize whether any specific salient word is included in the list. Most of the time it is seen that the participants are claiming the presence of a word in the list and the word is actually absent (Martial & Dehon, 2015).
2. The role of Activation Monitoring in DRM false memories
Activation Monitoring is actually a theoretical framework that instigates on the DRM false memory paradigm. Activation is a process that is responsible for the overall mental activation of a related lure (Nash et al. 2017). It may also contribute to the overall retrieval of the false information. On the other hand, monitoring is associated with the editing of the memory. The origin of the activated information is also determined by the monitoring process (Neuschatz et al. 2017).
3. Background research
Oliver, Bays, and Zabrucky had conducted a research whose main aim was to find out and explore the types of the errors in the DRM paradigm arises from the visual imagery. Another primary aim of these scholars was to find out the potential impacts of the imagery instructions on the false memories (Oliver, Bays & Zabrucky, 2016).
These scholars had accomplished their research based on the previous researchers. According to the past researchers, when participants are positively engaged in imagery encoding, there is a considerable decrease in the recognition process of the false lure. Generating images is thus beneficial for memory in this DRM procedure. The result as obtained is based on the recognition testing (Oliver, Bays & Zabrucky, 2016).
A variant of methods had incorporated in this study. 102 Undergraduate students were taken as the participants and were given the DRM list. In addition recall test and recognition test were also conducted on the participants. The materials consisted of the list of 8 items in 20 variants. Phonological lists had also been used in this context. The test of the final recognition had also been conducted among these participants (Oliver, Bays & Zabrucky, 2016).
Results were imagery rating-oriented. According to the obtained results, phonological lists were actually easier to imagine. The characteristic of memory accuracy, as well as the false memories, were also resulted from this study. The result as obtained gave the idea that imagery procedures are associated with the item-specific processing which, in turn, may decrease the relational processes as well related to the listing of the containing items (Oliver, Bays & Zabrucky, 2016).
As per the result of this research it can be seen that there are no significant relation between the imagery and type test. This clearly elicits the fact that visual imagery enhances memory recall. However the effect of imagery result on false memory recall was not elaborate in this study.
Reasons for non- significant difference
The non-significance occurred due to the item specific processing which was conducted in the experiment. This use of item specific processing reduced the relational processing and led to development of mirror effect thus leading to non-significance.
4. Explanation of the impact of imagery on the DRM false memories
Two hypotheses are exclusively relevant in this context. One is the impoverished relational-encoding hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, when a particular person experiences a specific image at the time of encoding, the focus is basically given on the features of the image (Pardilla-Delgado et al. 2016). Additionally, the details related to the given image are also considered in this regard. This, in turn, is responsible for reducing the actual relational processing which is supposed to be suitable for typical activation of lures in the semantic network environments (Yang et al. 2015).
Another hypothesis that deserves to be mentioned in this respect is the distinctiveness heuristic hypothesis. As per this hypothesis, at the time of imagery encoding, features of the images are properly integrated into the system of memory. This helps the monitor cues at the time of memory test. This implies that there is a significant lowering of the DRM false memory rating followed by the deliberate imagery of the listed items (Roediger III, 2016).
5. Background research
The scholar Read had conducted a research on the DRM false memories paradigm. The main aim of this research was to discover the possible ways in which a person can distinguish positively between the real event memories as well as imagined event memories (Read, 1996).
The 41 psychology students were taken as the participants of this research to whom 12-word list was given. Three minutes time was allocated to them for recalling the words listed. Sequential instructions were given and after each response, the data as obtained were recorded properly. Another research was also conducted in the same manner in which 248 students had taken part (Read, 1996).
The researchers resulted in the fact that there was a high frequency of the illusory memories which actually caused due to the incapability to differentiate between the real and the illusory words (Read, 1996).
c) Rationale and aim of the present study
1. Gap of the previous researches
The previous scholars have not been able to between the fact and fantasy associated with the false memories. The factual cause of the elusive and false memories has not been incorporated in an integrated manner in the previous researchers.
2. Rationale of the current experiment
The current experiment would be able to differentiate potentially the fact and fantasy that is associated with the DRM false memories paradigm. This research would be able to assist the relevant subjects in order to improve the usage of the information for the betterment of the differentiation between the fact and the fantasy.
3. Aim of the present study
The principal aim of the present study is to make a potential differentiation between the fact and fantasy of the recalling of the word listing and encoding.
4. Three conditions imposed on the current study
The first condition is the clear statement of the hypothesis. The season condition is the statement regarding the direction of the desired result. The third condition is the groups that are being compared in this study.
d) Hypothesis of the study
It may be hypothesized that the false memories arise due to the effort was given by the people to recall an incident that has not been happened at all. Also, false memories may play their role when people try to recall a particular and significant subject matter from a list of subject matters or words.
It can be concluded that DRM false memories paradigm is an important theoretical approach to investigate the role of the false memories in the recalling system of the human mind. The false memories arise when people try to give their utmost effort to remember a significant word or topic from a chunk of words or subjects and it is closely related to the encoding system.
Conway, M. A., Gathercole, S. E., & Cornoldi, C. (Eds.). (2014). Theories of memory II. Psychology Press: UK
Toglia, M. P., Read, J. D., Ross, D. F., & Lindsay, R. C. L. (Eds.). (2017). The handbook of eyewitness psychology: Volume I: Memory for events. Psychology Press: UK
Dewhurst, S. A., Anderson, R. J., Grace, L., & van Esch, L. (2016). Adaptive false memory: Imagining future scenarios increases false memories in the DRM paradigm. Memory & cognition, 44(7), 1076-1084.
Frenda, S. J., Patihis, L., Loftus, E. F., Lewis, H. C., & Fenn, K. M. (2014). Sleep deprivation and false memories. Psychological Science, 25(9), 1674-1681.
Martial, C., & Dehon, H. (2015). Comparison of individuals’ susceptibility to false memory induced by both DRM and misinformation paradigms involving emotional material.
Nash, R. A., Wade, K. A., Garry, M., Loftus, E. F., & Ost, J. (2017). Misrepresentations and flawed logic about the prevalence of false memories. Applied cognitive psychology, 31(1), 31-33.
Neuschatz, J. S., Lampinen, J. M., Toglia, M. P., Payne, D. G., & Cisneros, E. P. (2017). False memory research: History, theory, and applied implications. The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology: Volume I: Memory for Events.
Oliver, M. C., Bays, R. B., & Zabrucky, K. M. (2016). False memories and the DRM paradigm: effects of imagery, list, and test type. The Journal of general psychology, 143(1), 33-48.
Pardilla-Delgado, E., Alger, S. E., Cunningham, T. J., Kinealy, B., & Payne, J. D. (2016). Effects of post-encoding stress on performance in the DRM false memory paradigm. Learning & Memory, 23(1), 46-50.
Read, J. D. (1996). From a passing thought to a false memory in 2 minutes: Confusing real and illusory events. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3(1), 105-111.
Roediger III, H. L. (2016). 30 Serendipity in Research: Origins of the DRM False Memory Paradigm. Scientists Making a Difference: One Hundred Eminent Behavioral and Brain Scientists Talk about Their Most Important Contributions, 144.
Yang, H., Yang, S., Ceci, S. J., & Isen, A. M. (2015). Positive affect facilitates the effect of a warning on false memory in the DRM paradigm. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(3), 196-206.