The term system has its origin in the form of a Greek word ‘Systema’ which in other words can be explained as an organized relationship amongst the functioning components or units.
This paper would deal with the in-depth analysis of the system analysis and the design along with some of the other essential terms and working of the several important parts of the entire process of analysis & designing.

What are system analysis & design?

System analysis- It is termed as the process of interpreting and gathering the facts, analyzing the problems, and also using the given information for recommending improvements in the system.
System design- System design is all about planning a new system for business or a plan which can complement or replace the existing system. But in order to make a new system, it is really crucial to understand and analyze the existing system. (Shelly)
Systems analysis and design are the building blocks of development of any system. Its main purpose is that it provides a blue print for development of any new systems. It helps in  understanding the gaps in the existing system and expectations the users could have from the new system. It plays an important role in system life cycle as all other elements are based on systems analysis and design. The development of the system is based on the wireframe developed in system design. And the system is designed based on the results found during systems analysis. There are various cross life cycle activities in systems analysis and design. It doesn’t follow a simple step by step process rather multiple activates overlap to build a cris-cross in the systems lifecycle.

Different phases of system- analysis based & design based

The following are the different steps which are involved in the process of system analysis & design. 
i.Determinations or requirements
It is the stage which aids in determining the Application of highest priority amongst the other applications highlighted by a given organization. 
ii.Specifications of the requirements
It is the understanding of the existing applications of the system and is listed where a system is required.
iii.Feasibility Analysis
As per its workability of the new proposal, it is the new proposal’s test. It helps in analyzing the impact of a proposal on the organization, efficient use of resources and ability for meeting the needs of the user. (Bateman)
iv.The final Specifications
Specifications help in finding out what the system would achieve and improvisations are done and implemented. The final SRS is written and this is given to the user and hence, an agreement is reached.
v.Study of the hardware
For this step, it is essential to execute the system application for understanding the hardware and software needs. For eg Volume of data to be processed, Determining the response time, reports frequency and then as per that choosing the hardware.
vi.Design of the system
It involves the making of the Logical Design of the System, Database Design, identifying Objects, Implementing Program Specification, and Test Plans
vii.Implementation of the system
It consists of writing Programs (Coding), Document System, Creating Database, Training the users, running the system on a trial run.
viii.Evaluation of the system
This stage is based on the feedbacks of the users, whether the specified requirements are met by the system or not. Listing the areas of dissatisfaction and reasons for their existence and suggesting improvisations 
ix.Modification of the system
It involves fixing of existing errors, installing and removing certain features as per the requirements of the users, tuning up the System, Continuous monitoring of the system and finally the Assessment of system’s performance. 

What are modelling and its purpose? 

The Business Process Modeling (BPM) can be termed as a modern term or methodology which has seen its evolution through different names and stages which began during the 'division of labor' in the 1700s at the time when manufacturing moved from cottages into factories. (Kemsly)
It is used for improving the efficiency and quality of the organization. It has its roots in capital or profitable businesses but then the methodology can be applied to any organized activity.
The BPM diagram is a tool of means to an end and not an outcome of performance in its own right.
The final output is the improvement in which the processes of business work. The focus for improvements is based on the 'value added' actions which make the experience and customer service better by reducing the wasted time and efforts.
Modeling aims at illustrating a complete process, enabling consultants, managers and also the staff for improving the flow and also for streamlining the process.

Different types of modelling

There are three major types of Business Process Models are:
  1. Data centric – A data centric approach focuses on the most basic building blocks in any modelling. It focuses on individual data and object and looks at each component separately.
  2. Process centric – A process centric BPM focuses on the entire business process holistically rather than focusing on individual elements such as people, documents or workflow. This model aims to achieve a holistic view.
  3. Object oriented – Instead of focusing on applications, a object oriented model focuses on objects that interact with each other. In this model, properties and behaviours are defined for each object and worked upon accordingly.
a.Defining a successful Project
Successful projects are those which:-
  1. Meet the requirements of the business requirements 
  2. Delivered and maintained as per schedule and also within budget 
  3. Deliver results of expected business value and returns on various investments.
  4. Many more factors contribute to a project success, but then governance practices and effective project management are specifically critical.
b.Three categories used by system analysis for organizing all the requirements
The three categories are:-
  1. The data flows
  2. The Information flows
  3. The Process flows
The data flows as well as process flows are included in the introductory system analysis & design. The given data is moulded in such a way as to identify what is important and what is not, understanding the relationships. The main purpose of this step is of documenting the current system's processes, strengths & weaknesses. Also, provide a deep understanding about the current system.
c.Systems Thinking
  1. Systems thinking focuses on the interaction of each individual component with other component in the system. So effectively, instead of studying the individual elements it focuses on studying the entire system. (Aronson)
d.The most important processes of system analysis & design process
  1. According to me, the most important steps of the system analysis process are the System Initiation process and also system design phase. It is so because at first, it is of utmost importance to check whether the current system is appropriate or not and if changes are required then what are these and then if the new system is needed then how should it look on logical and the physical front. Implementation can be good only if planning is good. 


•Aronson, Daniel. "Overview of Systems Thinking." (1998).
•Bateman, David. Feasibility Analysis. 2005.
•Kemsly, Sandy. "" Business Process Modeling. .
•Shelly, Gary. Systems Analysis and Design. 2009.

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