Strategic Information Systems and Technology

Strategic Information Systems and Technology

Introduction

The market of competition and strategic aspects are improving with a rapid rate. In this scenario, the requirement of organizational strategy matters a lot. The organizational strategy will be helpful in opening a path for the growth and improvement in the right direction. Apart from this, the criterion for the transformation is also required in an appropriate way. For pursuing transformation, it is essential to follow the strategic information system in a suitable mode. There are various aspects identified for the organization strategy and to pursue these aspects, suitable coordination is essential between the IT and the business strategy.
The alignment of the business and IT is identified as the most appropriate combination, when managed in the right direction. In general words, it is an advanced concept of the business processing in which the information technology is capable to achieve advanced objectives related to the business. Apart from this, the combination should also be capable in generating suitable output as per the requirement and need of the specific business.
The essay shown below mainly relates to the critical analysis of an alignment of information system and organizational strategy, different aspects related to the organizational strategy and the fundamental concepts of information system in the organization.

A basic approach towards IT and Business Strategy alignment

The organizational strategy is identified as the method in which different type of functions and processes are identified for managing the suitable aspects related to the business. To understand the basic approach towards IT and business strategy alignment, it is essential that the different types of organizational strategy need to be analyzed. This will help in making research process easy and suitable. The organizational strategy is mainly categorized into three major forms which are named as the business strategy, transformational strategy and operational strategy. All these three strategies will be helpful in providing suitable assistance to the business opportunities. In this essay, the main focus is mainly switched towards the business strategy in contrast to the IT (Valorinta, 2011).
The wide range of ideas and information are generated for the IT and business strategy alignment. According to the research of articles and journals, the alignment of IT with business strategy is successful in providing suitable assistance to the competitive as well as strategic advantages. During an alignment, the IT is successful in providing assistance to improve competition, efficiency, operations, fixed asset management and other aspects too.  
The second basic idea related to the IT and business strategy is that the approach assists in fulfilling the demands of the customers in a proper way if they are aligned in a proper way.  The plotting of the customers’ demands and needs can be managed with the help of IT (Madewell, 2016). It will also be helpful in providing suitable assistance in a definite direction. The environmental opportunities and the unwanted risks related to the business can also be identified at an initial level, so that it can be removed as per the suitable directions.
The development of business is identified as the important output that is generated by the alignment of IT and business strategy. It is successful in generating appropriate business output and also provides support in carrying the business in a positive track. The business decisions can get taken and accomplished with the help of information technology (Scott, 2013). These decisions are strategy, architecture, priority and management. There are various suitable processes by which the process of alignment can be defined in a suitable way. 
Another basic evidence and idea about the IT and business strategy alignment is that it may help in providing suitable changes of transformation in the form of E- Business. The level of executing the business is actually improving. The criteria for performing apposite trading are changing with a rapid speed and appropriate assistance related to the business performance is defined at a primary level. The profit generation is getting higher and the financial aspects are also getting strengthened in a simultaneous manner.
But with these positive aspects, the negative aspects are also defined for the basic ideas and approaches. For the suitable execution, the basic ideas need coordinated and simultaneous approach to reach the target specified by an organization. There are various examples of different organizations defined that are not benefited by the IT and strategic analysis. This is due to an unorganized approach adopted by the organization. Another negative aspect relates to the management aspects which are related the IT and business strategy. For managing the business in a correct direction, there is a requirement of a professional and qualified team which can be managed by defining the definite standards (Osborn, 2013).
The negative aspects for the business are also that there is a lack of awareness and assumptions among the organization and its employees in the context of the IT processing. The awareness is identified as the major tool which can help in framing proper criteria for the execution. So, it is essential to create awareness on the basic ideas & approaches and also needs to manage the specific policies for generating the awareness. By the help of this, the negative perspectives can be changed into the positive ones.
It is essential to put forward the positive approach in a suitable direction to manage IT and business strategy in the appropriate mode, to achieve the specific goals and objectives (Combrinck, 2010).

Concepts of Information system

The fundamental concepts of the information system portray both in negative and positive forms. It is essential to provide a critical discussion properly, because the information system can be executed both in the positive and negative way to execute the processing in a suitable flow.
The concept of an information system in contrast to the strategic management is wide and more expressive. It helps in providing suitable guidance for the completing of the task. The information system is helpful in providing the most appropriate aspects to manage the organization and the basic tasks related to it. But, to understand the concept of an information system on an international level, the global system is essential to be identified.

Identification of an information System on the basis of the global system

The above paragraph is successful in defining the concept of an information system in a suitable way. But, the major concern is the identification of IT and business strategy. The alignment of both the aspects on a local level is quite easy to coordinate in contrast to the international level. The global development is analyzed in various areas of the organization. With an alignment of IT and business strategy, it could become easier to provide suitable grounds to the modern aspects and competitiveness equally. On the global level, the enterprise level planning for an improvement may also be done properly. One of the positive aspects which is identified is that IT and business strategic aspect is identified as the lever for development which helps in improving the organizational process on an international level. There are also various models that are defined for the development of the organization on an international level. These models are named as the EA Framework, TOGAF and many others. This will assists in defining the major growth perspectives for an improvement and development.
The positive perspective of IT alignment is that it may help in redefining and restructuring the actual scenario too. By this, the inappropriate condition is converted into an appropriate one.  At the global level, the developmental aspects are mainly defined when the goals and targets are achieved in a suitable way. To manage the perspectives, the IT and business strategic alignments have to be concerned with the most appropriate aspects which are helpful in pursuing the suitable targets too. These aspects or elements are mentioned as the IT business governance, suitable usage of business analysis, appropriate approaches towards the collaborative process and the development of the IT skills. By applying these, the required target can be achieved initially (Broadbent, et al., 1999).
There are various models and aspects also that are defined positively to manage the alignments between the IT and business strategy alignment. These models are named as the strategic alignment maturity model (SAM) and structural equation Modeling (SEM). Both these models also play a prominent role in defining the major business perspectives on a global level (Chevez, 2010).
In the above section, the basic aspects related to study of IT and business strategy alignment on a global basis are identified. All these are evaluated in the positive form. But, there are some aspects which are defined in negative form also. The IT and business strategy alignment is not such successful, because still some of the organizations are not familiar with the concept of IT and its usage in the suitable and right direction. The coordination becomes tough day by day. The business executives are not trying to identify the suitable business opportunity on a global level. Due to this, they are not able to frame the appropriate usage plan for the information technology in the organization. On the basis of global development of new aspects, the opportunities are not identified, authorized, globalized and implemented on a suitable basis simultaneously (Hwang, et al., 2011).

Development of Service Orientation of IT

The service orientation of IT is mainly helpful in defining the services in a suitable mode. The service orientation mainly helps in providing innovative services to the organizations in the form of opportunities. In the past days, the services provided are more common and less defined. But, due to the formation of the Business Process Redesign (BPR), it becomes easier to restructure the categorization of the services on a wide level. There are various statistics and data which will be helpful in highlighting the different forms of the restructuring and rephrasing. The service orientation will support in managing the suitable flow of work in the positive direction. The BPR is considered as the positive aspect of the service orientation, which is helpful in transforming the particular organization. The strategic IT and the business strategy act as the catalyst to make suitable changes in the ongoing transformations. The business process challenges can also be removed with the help of service orientation related to IT (Management, 2013).  The other tool named as the IT infrastructure tool will be helpful in providing suitable assistance for the technical and managerial aspects. It may simultaneously help in providing appropriate guidance for the reliability, coordination and support. These all aspects provided by the IT infrastructure assists in supporting the developmental aspects. The wide range of innovative services are also specified on a preliminary level (Kramer, 2005).
Apart from these positive services, the negative perspective of the service orientation and its related tools are also provided. For making an improved and well defined infrastructure approach, it is essential that the suitable graph should be plotted for the wide range of services. The team which is indulged in providing services should be technically framed and also capable in providing the most desired services to the customers. The strategic approach should also be developed and well defined, by which an appropriate assistance can be provided to manage the IT and business alignment with each other and in a coordinated manner.

Critical evaluation of strategic Approach

The IT and business alignment is identified as the major area for discussion for past many years. The different perspectives related to the alignment are observed in the organizations. In fact, various transformations and changes are also observed while identifying the suitable impact of alignment on performance. The discussion of the impact can be identified both by the organization & its performance separately, and individual criteria are also discussed on the major level.
The impact on the firm or organization can be analyzed in the critical manner. The positive impact of IT and business strategy is that it is successful in providing consistent and constant aspects to the firm, so that it can able to develop its standards in defining the parameters. The formulation, integration and coordination of the organization is highly influenced by the alignment of IT and business strategy in a simultaneous manner. It is also identified that the alignment of both the architecture will also help in managing the suitable environmental aspects related to the organization. Other than this, the platform for stable growth is also designed for the success in the correct direction. The platform should be provided in the planned and sequential manner (Bharadwaj, 2000). According to Huvang, suitable resources defined in the IT will be supportive in managing the flexible structure and strategic aspects are also getting improved appropriately.  But, sometime these impacts also create a negative impact on the management and flow of the process. To manage this negative impact, it is essential that the effective technique and quality management aspects should be framed that will help in providing suitable assistance in the right direction.
Similarly, the impact of IT and strategic alignment is also identified in context to the performance for an organization. The major performance aspects that are identified are similar to the customer orientation. In the positive aspect, customer orientation is properly managed if executed in the proper direction with an appropriate flow. These will also improve the exchange of the suitable views related to the customers. With this alignment, the organizational human resource will also get improved in a suitable manner. The process related to the human resource are also managed in a suitable direction to provide proper accessibility. Other than this, the performance indicators are also considered on a wide level, which can help in supporting and defining the suitable growth perspectives in the suitable way. But, performance may degrade or suffer by the negative impact, when the resources are not clear for their future perspectives. The fluctuations in the performance indicators and continuous changes are also considered as the negative perspectives in contrast to the IT and strategic alignment (Chan & Reich, 2007).
Apart from this aspects discussed above, the individual aspects can also be defined which are helpful in explaining the impact of IT and business strategy alignment. The resilience of the organization, managing aspects of leadership and management of competitive advantage are identified as some of the areas on which the IT and business strategic alignment can provide positive and negative feedback. In contrast of resilience for the organization, the alignment of both will be helpful in creating suitable infrastructure aspects by which the organizations can able to generate suitable profit in a right direction. To face the major difficulties, the alignment is capable of providing appropriate assistance. In fact, the different models are also defined to manage the inappropriate condition related to the organization (Schiller, 2015). The competitive aspects are also influenced by the alignment of IT and business alignment in a suitable way. To promote the internal and external competition in a suitable way, the strategy for the competition is also defined which will further help in providing suitable assistance in the correct manner. The negative part is that the ways and criteria for the competition is different for different organizations, so the individual identity is not easily managed and issues are generated on the wide landscape (Chebrolu & Ness, 2013).
The aspects related to the leadership are also influenced by the alignment of IT and business strategy. Both the negative and positive criteria are observed at a proper level. The positive aspects are that the leadership skills will be enhanced after observing the major changes due to alignment of both the aspects and the negative perspective is that various assumptions & approaches are planned for the leadership style and its specific promotions (Grant, et al., 2010).
By assuming the different areas and aspects defined above, the suitable picture of IT and business strategy is identified in a proper form. Both, the negative and positive aspects need to be focused for the suitable assumptions.

Conclusion

The IT and business strategy is identified as a wide field of discussion. There are other strategies too, that are mentioned in contrast to the IT. Apart from this short discussion on critical analysis, there are other topics of discussion considered for the evaluation. The essay is helpful in delivering major aspects related to the critical discussion in a possible manner. The hidden and the unseen areas also need to be covered in the essay, through which both the positive and negative approaches can be recognized on an initial level. The individual critical analysis of each point is successful in providing suitable assistance in an appropriate direction. The different roles and responsibility of IT and business strategy is defined differently and the execution of all these aspects are still considered on priority. The critical evaluation on a global basis is also helpful in providing suitable assistance for both the aspects on an international level. Better ways to manage the global alignment are also identified with the suitability analysis in the correct way. The requirement of the basic tools related to IT and business strategic alignment is successful in delivering the positive and negative aspects related to the organizations.

References

Bharadwaj, A., 2000. A resource based perspective on IT capability and firm performance, Available at: http://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2361&context=misq
Broadbent, M., Weill , P. & Clair , D., 1999. The implications of information technology infrastructure for business process redesign. 23(2), pp. 159-182, Available at: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=325882
Chan, Y. & Reich, B., 2007. IT alignment: An annotated bibliography. Journal of Information Technology, October, 22(7), pp. 316-396.
Chebrolu, S. & Ness, L., 2013. How Does Alignment of Business and IT Strategies Impact Aspects of IT Effectiveness?. International Journal of Applied Management and Technology, 12(1), p. 1–15.
Chevez, N., 2010. A Unified Strategic Business and IT Alignment Model, Available at: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:318799/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Combrinck, J., 2010. Align IT with business strategy, Available at: https://www.spaceage.co.za/business/align-it-with-business-strategy/
Grant, K., Hackney, R. & Edgar, D., 2010. Strategic Information Systems Management: Cengage Learning EMEA, Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Strategic_Information_Systems_Management.html?id=-XAc6gUfj8oC
Hwang, H. et al., 2011. IT Investment Strategy And IT Infrastructure Services, Available at: cluteinstitute.com/ojs/index.php/RBIS/article/download/4571/4662
Kramer, L., 2005. CIO Challenge - IT/Business Alignment, Available at: http://www.wallstreetandtech.com/cio-challenge---it-business-alignment/d/d-id/1257282
Madewell, D., 2016. A Summary of Approaches, Issues, and Constraints in Information Technology (IT) Alignment over the Evolution of IT Management: Academia, Available at: http://www.academia.edu/9891483/A_Summary_of_Approaches_Issues_and_Constraints_in_Information_Technology_IT_Alignment_over_the_Evolution_of_IT_Management
Management, G. I. f. I., 2013. Enhancing the Measurement of Information Technology (IT) Business Alignment and Its Influence on Company Performance, Available at: www.globaliim.com/app/download/963110304/SAM+SEM.pdf
Osborn, P., 2013. Aligning Information Technology With the Business: SIM, Available at: http://www.raumer.com/articles%20and%20presentations/AligningIT.pdf
Schiller, M., 2015. The Challenges of Aligning IT and the Business, Available at: http://www.cioinsight.com/it-management/expert-voices/the-challenges-of-aligning-it-and-the-business.html 
Scott, J., 2013. Three Types of Strategy, Available at: http://www.accelare.com/blog/2013/08/19/three-types-of-strategy
Valorinta, M., 2011. IT alignment and the boundaries of the IT function. Journal of Information Technology, March, 26(1), p. 46–59.

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