Case Study 1
Adam has been working on a project for his Bachelor in computer science course in the university of Technology and Science and he is a member of ACS (Australian Computer Society) also. The condition of the project “Adam has to finish the project within 6 hours of time in the computer lab”.20% marks will add up for this project as it is a part of final exam. The entire project works need to be emailed to the professor and a copy he should save in student folder of the computer. The Professor has explained the problem scenario and allotted a fixed limit of time for this project. Adam is running out of time, but has not yet finished the project. In fact, he was an irregular student. He is also unable to communicate with the professor due to certain circumstances (the professor was not in the class). Three months ago, Adam appointed as a part time employee in IT section for the university. Last month, he had been worked as a student programmer for the campus computer Centre and is quite familiar with job environment and procedures. He has done many times to increase time allocations to different types of accounts as a part of his job as well. He has the right permission to access the master account. Then he gives himself additional time by manipulating his account and finishes his project.
Investigate the student policy at the first stage Adam has violated and how?
It has been mentioned in this case that Adam needs to finish a project on time and the time allotted for this project is 6 hours but he is running out of time. One of the main reasons that he is running out of time because Adam was quite irregular in his class. On the other hand, three months ago he was recruited as the part-time employee in the IT segment with regards to the university. He has worked mainly as a student programmer and has acquired some of the ethical knowledge as well. Throwing light on the above-mentioned segment it can be said that Adam has right to access the master account that is the reason he has given himself extra time by manipulating his account for finishing the project work. It is definitely one of the crimes that he has committed because computer manipulation is a crime and he has also violated it (Trepte and Reinecke, 2011).
Research on UTS student policy on computer use and write down some of the policies need to be followed by Adam/students in a computer lab which relate to the ethical use in this stage?
Some of the UTS student policies with regards to the right type of computer usage are as follows: Firstly, Adam and other students need to switch off their mobile phone when they are entering the lab. Secondly, the students should be also prohibited from downloading or hacking anything inside the lab. Thirdly, if the students fail to adhere the rules and regulations set by the university then their account will be locked by the authorities and they will not be able to access anything. Fourthly, another one of the most important policies that needs to be followed by the students is that they have right to use and access the IT facilities for work that is legitimate. The individuals that are using the facilities of IT will be responsible entirely for their own action. Lastly, if students like Adam tend to breach the policy then they may face severe consequences such as: The university can immediately terminate the right to use the IT facilities on a permanent or temporary basis depending completely upon the depth of crime, there might be legal and criminal proceedings with regards to the Federal and State Legislations (Mahajan and Reshamwal, 2011).
What is your opinion regarding the absence of the Professor from the class? Do you think, Adam will be able to continuing his job if caught?
Personal opinion for the professor from the class of Adam is to some extent correct because the professor has already explained the problem scenario to Adam beforehand and allotted a time that is fixed for this particular project. Hence, if Adam was not clear about the project or he had any doubts then he should have cleared it then and there when the professor was present. Even if the professor was not present in the class then also Adam could have communicated him via email or mobile phone. I don't think Adam will be able to continue his job in the university as a part-time programmer if he is caught because it is already mentioned in the above section that it is against the rules and regulations of the university.
As a member of Australian Computer Society (ACS) what he needs to follow in this situation/every time as long as he is in IT field?
It has been mentioned in this case study that Adam is a member of the Australian Computer Society he needs to follow certain guidelines in this particular situation/ each of the time as long as he is associated with the IT field. Firstly, in terms of honesty: Adam must be completely honest when he representing his knowledge and skills. Secondly, in terms of competence: Adam must only undertake the work that he thinks he is competent enough to perform. The limitations should be always known to him that he cannot perform a certain type of job even he undertakes such job then he will violate the law. Thirdly, in terms of the Primacy of the Public Interest: Adam should always safeguard the interests of the stakeholders in his work provided that these interests do not clash with the loyalty and duty Adam owes to the public. Fourthly, in terms of the Enhancement of Quality of Life: An ethical approach towards the work of Adam will help to identify and minimize the adverse effects. Lastly, under the professional development and professionalism: Adam must keep him updated with the new technologies, standards, and practices that are relevant to his work because others will want him to provide special skills and advice.
Case Study 2
Cognisoft, a small software company is working on an integrated inventory control system for a large scale mobile phone manufacturer. The system (inventory control system) will gather sales information daily from sales stores nationwide. This information will be used by the accounting, shipping, and ordering departments to control all of the functions of this large corporation. The inventory functions are critical to the smooth operation of the system. Simpson newly joined quality maintenance engineer with the software company. He suspects that the inventory functions of the system are not sufficiently tested. For some reasons, it needs to check although they have tested before and passed in every test. Under these circumstances, he is pressured by his employers to sign off on the software. Legally, he is only required to perform those tests which have been agreed to in the original contract. However, his considerable experience in software testing has led him to be concerned over risks of the system. Simpson’s employers repeatedly say “they will lose the contract if they do not deliver the software on time”.
What are the legal rights of stakeholders, they can expect from “Cognisoft”?
The legal rights of the stakeholders that they can expect from cognisoft will be discussed in this segment. It has been said in this particular case that Simpson is the newly joined candidate in this organization but he has a considerable amount of experience in the field of software testing. He suspects that inventory functions are not properly tested still the company is not allowing him to test the softwares. The company must give these following legal rights to the stakeholder's: The stakeholders must have the right to learn about the business and its objectives, it is also the right of the stakeholder's that they must be treated with great care and respect, they should be also presented with the opportunities to give suggestions to the company and another important right of the stakeholder is to understand and identify their requirements (Markham, Buchanan and AoIR Ethics Working Committee, 2012).
Why the employers cannot create pressure on Simpson as he has to maintain the interest of stakeholders, explain?
The employers cannot create any kind of pressure on Simpson because he is the quality maintenance engineer in the software company and he has also the responsibility to maintain the interest of the stakeholder's. It has been noticed that Simpson is the quality maintenance engineer so he has the following responsibilities that are the reason the employers are unable to create pressure on him. Simpson is in charge of designing maintenance methods, strategies, and procedures; he is also liable for carrying out scheduled maintenance work and responding towards if the equipment has any type of faults, and team working as well as people management skills. The only pressure that he is getting from the employers is to sign off the software agreement. On the legal grounds, he is only bound to perform the tests that have been completely agreed in the original contract still Simpson thinks that there is high risk revolving around the inventory system. It is one of the reasons that the employers think that they will lose the contract if the company is unable to deliver the required software on time (Pagallo, 2012).
Point out the causes of Simpson’s dilemma.
The possible causes for the dilemma of Simpson are as follows: Firstly, he highly suspects that the functions of the inventory are not tested in a proper manner. Secondly, he is also highly tensed because he suspects that the inventory functions needs to be rechecked although it has been checked. Thirdly, it is not on the contract that he is required to perform those tests still by the amount of experience that he has gathered during the years tells him that the system is highly covered with risks (Stair and et al, 2011).
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Case Study 3
Mark set up a business in the field of IT. After several years of hardship he has been getting the reward, several employees are working for him and he gets a large number of clients. Basically, they do consulting for corporate internet setting, designing database management system and advising about security. His team is now working on a database management system for a medium scale of company. With the concern of the CEO, Mark engages director of computing and the director of personnel for the quick progression of the project. It is now time to make decisions about the kind and level of security to implement. Several options of the security procedure Mark has discussed to the client. Mark raised the issue because the project is going to cost more than they planned. Despite, his suggestions the client has decided to implement a less secure system. He believes the information they will be storing is extremely sensitive and will include performance evaluations, medical records for filing insurance claims, salaries, and so on. With weak security, employees working on client machines may be able to figure out ways to get access to this data, not to mention the possibility of online access from hackers. Mark feels strongly that the system should be much more secure. He has focused into the risks again and again, but the CEO, director of computing and director of personnel all agree that less security will do. What should he do? Should he refuse/stop to build the system as they request?
Considering the system security, who was alright, Mark or others and why?
Considering the situation with regards to the system security it is needless to say that Mark's point of view is absolutely right while others are completely wrong because of the following reasons. Firstly, the entire team of Mark is working on the database management system for a company that is medium scale. The time has come for them to make the decisions concerning the security that will be implemented. There are several issues that have been also discussed with the client by Mark as the project is more sensitive and serious than they have thought. On the contrary, even after Mark explained that high-level of security needs to be implemented for the project the client has refused and suggested them to use a less secure system. Throwing light on the above-mentioned statement it can be said that Mark believes that the information he and his team will be storing is extremely sensitive in nature and will also include the medical records for filing the salaries, claims of the insurance and so on. In this case, if the security is weak then the workers working on the machines of the client will be able to get an easy accessibility on the data and also the hackers will get hold of the data quickly via online. Hence, it is not illogical to think for Mark that the system needs to be much more secure.
Do you think the CEO and the directors could face serious consequences in future?
Yes, personally I feel that the directors and the CEO of the company will face serious consequences in the future because of the following reasons: Firstly, when the information is quite important as well as sensitive in nature it requires a strong security as the data security is fundamental. Secondly, if the data is sensitive and someone has access to it then it can harm the company to a great extent. Thirdly, if hackers get access to the data then everything is gone and the company will be unable to do anything. Hence, it is advisable to use a strong security for safeguarding the data.
Why Mark should not proceed further to build up the system?
Mark should not proceed to build up the system for the following reasons. Firstly, Mark’s IT Company just came into recognition after several years of hardship in the industry. At the present time he has got a large number of employees and client base and if he builds this system that is at high risk then he might lose everything. Secondly, Mark is also concerned about the client as if the security is weak then the hackers and the employees will get hold of the data and the client will be at loss. Risks are the main priority for Mark from the beginning.
Mention some of the key points you need to take in account when you will be developing copyright policy for your / someone’s company?
Some of the key points that need to be taken into consideration when the copyright policy is made are as follows: Firstly, some of the information needs to be gathered from the colleagues throughout the company on how information is shared and also an individual must consider the valuable suggestions with regards to address the issues arising from the policy (Aulisio, 2013). Secondly, policy objective must be established: Such as, the workers with an approach that is uniform can address the copyright issues in a correct manner. Thirdly, one of the main points that need to be considered is what exactly the copyright means to the company. Fourthly, the copyright formats should be clarified so that it is known that how the content is affected by the copyright in all the formats. Lastly, the copyright compliance procedures must be specified.
Why the organisations need to change policy and procedure? Mention some of the strategies for involving the stakeholders in this process and point out any of the strategies.
The companies need to change the procedure and policy of the copyrights because there are some of the changes in the employment regulations and laws, and the scope and size of the company may also change. If the changes do not take place in the copyright then the policies in it may become obsolete (Miller, 2015). Some of the strategies that are needed for involving the stakeholders in the process are: Asking them relevant questions, raising some of the issues for discussion, clarifying the value of a specific process and etcetera (Stokes, 2014).
Give some of the exception of copyright law by which the organisations and public can maximise their outcomes?
Some of the exceptions of copyright law by which the companies and public can maximize their outcomes are: Two of the most vital examples of exceptions with regards to the copyright are the fair use Doctrine that is found in the U.S. and the decent dealing doctrine that is found in many counties with regards to common law. Then the changing technology also becomes an exception to the copyright law (Joyce and et al, 2016).
Aulisio, G. J. (2013). Copyright in light of ethics. Reference Services Review, 41(3), 566-575.
Joyce, C., Ochoa, T. T., Carroll, M. W., Leaffer, M. A., and Jaszi, P. (2016). Copyright law (p. 85). New Jersey: Carolina Academic Press.
Mahajan, S. M., and Reshamwal, A. K. (2011). Data Mining Ethics in Privacy Preservation-A Survey. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 3(4), 529.
Markham, A., Buchanan, E., and AoIR Ethics Working Committee. (2012). Ethical decision-making and Internet research: Version 2.0. Association of Internet Researchers.
Miller, V. (2015). The Crisis of Presence in Contemporary Culture: Ethics, Privacy and Speech in Mediated Social Life. New York: Sage.
Pagallo, U. (2012). On the principle of privacy by design and its limits: Technology, ethics and the rule of law. In European Data Protection: In Good Health? (pp. 331-346). Springer, Dordrecht.
Stair, R., Moisiadis, F., Genrich, R., & Reynolds, G. (2011). Principles of information systems. New Jersey: Cengage Learning Australia.
Stokes, S. (2014). Digital copyright: law and practice. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Trepte, S., and Reinecke, L. (Eds.). (2011). Privacy online: Perspectives on privacy and self-disclosure in the social web. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.