Safety Performance in Residential Building

Prepare a report on "The role of training in improving safety performance in residential building construction projects".

Project Outline

It is always considered that the construction industry is the important part for any economy for any country in the world. This industry is often seen as the driver for the economic growth especially for the developing countries. In case of those developing countries, it is found that the construction industry in general contributes almost 11% to 15 % of the gross domestic products or GDP (Sonja, Perry, & Ranjan, 207). On the other hand, it is also important that in case of construction of any residential building, safety comes first. As, the riskiness of health injured incidents are found to be at high percentage in case of building construction project especially in case of large building projects. 
In this scenario, the health as well as the safety is mostly economic and humanitarian concern which is needed to control under proper management and training. For preventing the increase in number of worker accidents as well as fatalities for the safety purpose in case of construction the building. The responsibilities of the workers have the right to be in safe in their workplace and the employers have the responsibilities to provide the right training to increase the safeties under construction projects. As per the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or (OSH Act) has created for protecting the workers so that the workers under construction project would not be killed or harmed at the work place (Sunindijo, 2015). 
This project report thus focusses on the safety issues and the importance of the training to increase the safety performance under the any building construction project.

Purpose of the Study

It is very purposeful for mankind to take care of the lives of self as well as other while working in together as well as in case of individual. The safety performance under any residential construction projects comes under consideration when the projects consist of many storied building and more than 100 workers are working in together. The construction projects are considered as the most risky projects as many construction companies do not follow safety act and under any compulsion, the workers who come from poor families do not have knowledge how to protect themselves. On basis of this, the safety frame works are required to install within the projects whenever required. So this study emphasizes on the requirements of the basic training for improving the safety requirements in any construction of large residential building projects.

Aim of the Research

The aim of this research project is to increase and establish the importance of the safety performance through direct training or any lateral learning in case of construction residential building. It is said that the safety management has the term used to refer the comprehensive business management system designed for managing safety elements within the workplace. So, within this research project, it can be learned through literature review or the qualitative analysis from several journals that the process of increasing the safety performance under the construction site. 
This project also has the aim to learn about the accidents possibilities under the construction projects so that they can be further protected by any course of learning or training.
As per the aim is concerned this research project finds out the impact of the health as well as safety training program in case of Latino day laborers under the residential construction projects.
The aim of the project is also to discuss the effectiveness for increasing the health as well as the safety conditions under any compulsion of the construction work.

Objectives of the Research

The objectives of the research project are as follows:
1.    To aware the benefit of the training or e-learning program among the workers under the construction of residential building projects.
2.    To increase the knowledge about the effectiveness of the learning for improvement any safety performance under the specified construction project works.
3.    To provide the recommendations or suggestions for further improvements of learning system to betterment of health and safety at specified construction sites.

Key Literatures

Ho, C.L, & Dzeng, R.J. (2010). Construction safety training via e-Learning: Learning effectiveness and user satisfaction. Computers & Education, 55, 858-867.
This study has provided the knowledge about the technological as well as domestic safety education which helps for protecting the labor occupational safety health. This study emphasizes on the present condition of the construction safety training program and thus it has identified the factors which have impact of the effectiveness of the eLearning process. It is thus found that the Labour safety education training is thus mostly delivered through on-the-job training as well as the classroom instruction. For implementing the present labor safety as well as the health education within the construction industries, the system is found to be differed based on the construction environment. There are some factors, like geographic conditions, time as well as the cost determination are required to keep in mind while providing the training session for the residential construction projects. The importance of the eLearning program is effective for those who have the capture power to know the better education through virtual world and thereby they can apply that knowledge while working under such projects. Those workers are trained in advance so that they can further educate their subordinates about the health and safety program within a specified time limit. The e-learning process is thus maintained as the continuous process and thus it is found to strengthen their knowledge about the importance of the labor safety during the session of works. Through the research methodology, it has been established that the errors that occurred and the rate of injury under the project execution are deliberately decreased while the workers are undergone the e-learning safety education prior to the commencement of the project. It has been also established that repeated education has the power to reduce the rate of injury with a significant amount while the property loss rate and the error rate has come down significantly.
Brunette, M. J.  (2005). Development of Educational and Training Materials on Safety and Health, Targeting Hispanic Workers in the Construction Industry. Fam Community Health, 28, 253-266.
Through this study, it can be known that in case of construction which is considered as the largest industries within United Sates, is the most dangerous industries where the occupational death has come as 20.3% or 1,121 in the year 2002. In United States, it has been found that there are 9.4 million civilian or the 7.03 % (the most of the civils in United States) are found to be involved 

                 Figure: Rate of Injuries shown under different types of industries
within the construction industries. In this scenario, this study has emphasized on the development of the training materials which are already there for safety at work. Those materials should be corrected as per the linguistic or cultured program on occupational safety as well as the health resources, especially for the Spanish speaker workers in United States. Those educational materials are found to be developed depending on the audiovisuals or the digital video or the Spanish-English construction dictionary and those training program includes some fact sheets along with the pamphlets as well as the posters upon the safety under construction projects. There is the real understanding under the socioeconomic as well as the cultural backgrounds for the Hispanic work force which is significantly contributed for the well-developed materials in purpose to educate as well as inform them for the safety or health at the workplace. While developing those training materials, the critical factors is to produce the materials as linguistically as well as culturally appropriate for the safety training materials while the translation method should be meaningful one. As per example, it is followed the back translation method in case to translate the source language or English to the target language, say Spanish and again they are translated from the Spanish one to another version of English so that all the versions should indicate same meanings. Another deliberating knowledge of safety method has found as decentering in which the source and the target languages are equally needed to be modified during the translation process. As this process is undergoing continuous revision, the books under this process are considered as most modern technique to update the knowledge individually.

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Williams, Q; Ochsner, M; Marshall, E; Kimmel, L, & Martino, C. (2010). The impact of a peer-led participatory health and safety training program for Latino day laborers in construction. Journal of Safety Research, 41, 253-261. 
This study provides the real time documentation on the vulnerabilities to the traumatic injuries for the immigrant of Hispanic day laborers through which it can be revealed that the health and safety training materials are very much essential for those workers under construction sites to reduce their risk of losing lives. This project is only considered the findings from the samples from relatively small and restricted areas, like northern as well as central areas of New Jersey. The laborers are mostly from Mexico and the organizers also do not represented for all the Hispanic laborers under the population range. It is further noticed through the interviews, that the workers are interested to utilize their knowledge of training for minimizing the hazards ensuring that there would be less accidents during the work session in the sites. Moreover, the participation has been built up on the basis of the health as well as the safety knowledge as well as the skilled target population collaboration with the cultural sensitivity as well as the knowledge and the awareness programs conducted by the researchers so that there would be grater assurance for the sustainability of the project itself. It is also checked that  the educational interventions has its own design for promoting the participation , building skills as well as the leadership quality to develop the community and organize to build up the social capital.
Kozlovska, M. & Strukova, Z. (2013). Multimedia educational programs for improvement of occupational safety awareness in construction industry. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 106, 1866-1875.
As per this study, it has found that the most effective ways for improving the safety as well as health conditions under the construction sites, is to provide the training program through proper planning, managing as well as executing. Also, the creative approaches have found to be encouraged through the new methods of teaching health as well as safety within stimulating ways. This study has focused on the implementation of the concept as “Prevention through design (PtD).” Also, the secondary educational program has been prepared as well as realized under the practitioners from those construction companies. It is thus emphasized on the development of the awareness program of safety as well as the sound education through the training of the laborers. 

Recommendations

Therefore, to prevent the further conflicts as well as the hazards in the construction projects of residential building, here are some recommendations as mentioned below:
1. For checking up that the workers are truly acquired the knowledge of safety or not, it is needed to have a practical session on the hazards program during the training session of the construction projects.
2. The initiatives are also needed to take care by the Government for developing further policies for compulsory training program under the construction of building.
3. In case of any accidents occurred, it is needed to be documented or the media can help to increase the awareness among the other citizens or through the awareness program as well.

Reference List

Brunette, M. J. (2005). Development of Educational and Training Materials on Safety and Health, Targeting Hispanic Workers in the Construction Industry. Fam Community Health, 253-266.
Ho, C., & Dzeng, R. (2010). Construction safety training via e-Learning: Learning effectiveness and user satisfaction. Computers & Education, 858-867.
Kozlovska, M., & Strukova, Z. (2013). Multimedia educational programs for improvement of occupational safety awareness in construction industry. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1866-1875.
Sonja, P., Perry, M., & Ranjan, R. (207). Improving the Occupational Health and Safety Measures in the Australian Construction Industry. Zagreb International Review of Economics & Business, 17-34.
Sunindijo, R. (2015). Improving Safety Among Small Organisations in the Construction Industry: Key Barriers and Improvement Strategies. Procedia Engineering, 109-116.
Williams, Q., Ochsner, M., Marshall, E., Kimmel, L., & Martino, C. (2010). he impact of a peer-led participatory health and safety training program for Latino day laborers in construction. Journal of Safety Research, 253-261.

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