- RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTOR IN CHILD DEVELOPMENTINTRODUCTION
- Identifying risk and protective factors that affect young children learning and development
- • Individual factor:
- • Family factor:
- • Socio-culture factor:
- •Community or political factor:
- Impact of risk and protective factor on young children socio-economic development
- Impact of risk and protective factor on young children physical, sensory and motor development
- Impact of risk and protective factor on young children cognitive development
- Using theory to explain the impact of risk and protective factors on young children learning and development
- Interventions that could promote young children learning and development
RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTOR IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT
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Identifying risk and protective factors that affect young children learning and development
Young children are those that come under the age category of 6-8 years. In the human lifespan, this age is very critical. This is because the things that these children learn in the given age category will last until their death. Thus, during this age parents should give a proper caring environment to their children (Ninio, 2018). This is because, if not given then the effect of the same will be seen in the future life of these children. In order to elaborate this point, there are different risks and preventive factors examined which have a significant effect on the young children learning and development. The detailed descriptions of all the assessed factors are given below:
• Individual factor:
The very first factor is of an individual factor. These are the factors which are internal to the children or it can be said that these factors can be considered as natural abilities of the children. From time to time, child showcases his/her behavior and the type of behavior shown by them indicate about their internal risk factors. These factors could be the part of children’s personality and the temperament. Here, the examples of behavior could be very aggressive and irritable, not following instruction, very anxious, display the kind of behavior which is very difficult to manage and very notorious. These risk factors will have a negative impact on the young children development. For instance, a child is notorious and do not listen to things to his/her parents. This is the situation is a matter of concern for the parents. This is because; if at such a young age he will not listen to his parents then during adulthood child will do the things as per his desire only. Besides this, there are some protective factors also which will also have an impact on young children learning and development. These factors are a positive one and will cause a positive impact on the young children development (Cashdan & Meadows, 2017). The example of these factors is a positive approach to the problem, hopeful about future, easygoing temperament, social skills, and ability to maintain a lasting relationship with friends and family and the sense of independence. The child which possesses these factors will likely to become a great person in future.
• Family factor:
It is the second most important factor which will have an effect on the young children learning and development. This includes a family of the children which involves the mother, father and grandparents etc. In this context, it has been seen that children grow seeing their parent’s activity and the behavior. Thus, the type of behavior being carried out by parents in front of their children will have a direct impact on their learning and development (Payne & Isaacs, 2017). In accordance with the given context, there are some family-related risk factors examined and this includes conflicts between parents, unsupportive relationship, harsh parenting, social isolation, family separation or neutral family and lack of supervision from the side of adults. Besides this, there are some protective factors also which are completely opposite to the risk factors and it comprises of having support from the family, living in joint family, seeing parents who love each other and the very supportive relationship between parents etc. These all factors will have a direct impact on the mental health of the young children. Thus, it is essential for the parents that they should give consideration to these factors. This is because, if not given then the impact of the same will have to bear by their child in future.
• Socio-culture factor:
It is the type of environment in which children grow. This includes the friends and neighbor of children’s parents. Parents are the very first individual that shapes the personality of their children. However, after parents, the type of behavior which is being carried out by children totally depends upon their social environment (Roskos, 2017). The risk factors which are associated with the social environment are social isolation, conflicts with a neighbor, use of abusive language by a neighbor, not following healthy food prcatices, children is surrounded with obese people and judging people on the basis of their caste and creed etc. However, there are some protective social culture factors also which will have a positive impact on children. The factors include unity among people, seeing neighbors helping each other, not giving respect to the women and not judging people on the basis of their culture. It is the people only which shape the environment. Thus, the kind of environment which they want to give or showcase to their children totally depends upon them. For example, if people of society provide an environment of regular conflict and murder to their children then the given thing will lead to cause direct impact on the mental development of young children in an effectual way.
•Community or political factor:
It does not have a direct relationship with the young children development and learning. But still, it has importance in their overall development. The risk factors here are related to political unrest and situation of war. For example, the situation like war tends to cause direct impact on the personality of young children (Entwisle, 2018). Here, if children see that people of his country are fighting continuously then in the given situation he/she will also adopt such type of things and will continue the same in the adulthood. Overall, it can be said that these four are the major factors which have a significant impact on young children learning and development.
Identifying how risk and protective factors affect young children learning and development.The risk and protective factors which are mentioned above will have the necessary impact on the young children learning and development. Here, these factors will have an effect on the three basic forms of developments and these consist of socio-economic, physical and cognitive development. The in-depth discussion about the same is given below:
Impact of risk and protective factor on young children socio-economic development
The socio-development depicts the condition that how children will behave in society. The type of behavior which is being carried out by the children among the people of society totally depends upon the number of factors (Kurkul & Corriveau, 2018). For example, the manner in which parents of children behave with their own parents and other family members will have an impact on the social development of young children. For instance, children see that their parents do not involve themselves much in any kind of social activity and they also see that his/her parents do not have many friends in comparison to other parents. Thus, these are the type of situation which will shape the behavior of young children (Green, 2017). Here, in the mentioned situation young children will become more introverts and thus he/she will not also involve itself much with other people. In addition to this, such type of children faces more difficulty in future. This is because in future, they face difficulty in making friends or able to adjust themselves with other. As a result of it, they will face many health issues such as depression and stress etc. Furthermore, the given type of children also not believes in sharing things. However, in the circumstances, if they have to share things at that time they show tantrums. Thus, as a result of they stay alone in their whole life.
Impact of risk and protective factor on young children physical, sensory and motor development
The physical development of children involves weight, height, muscle and bone development etc. Here, family, social and political factors play a very significant role. The family factor involves parents. The proper and healthy physical development of young children totally depends upon their parents. Here, it is the responsibility of parents that they should provide a healthy and learning environment to their children. In this context, they should encourage their children for the different type of physical activities such as swimming, running and jumping etc. Here, it is through this type of activity only healthy physical development of the young children can be assured in an effectual manner.
Further, the activities such as running and jumping etc play important role in increasing height of the children. Besides this, the social environment of the young children also causes a significant impact on their overall physical development. For example, children live in the society wherein each and every individual is obese and do not give much importance to the health. This is a kind of risk factor which will cause a negative impact on the physical health of children (Black and et.al., 2017). This is because; in the given type of situation children will also adopt a similar type of lifestyle. Hence, as a result of it, they will become obese and will be affected by the different type of medical and physical condition. In a similar way, during the condition of war children will not get proper nutrition and food. Thus, as a result of it, their body mass index will decrease and they will be affected by different other conditions such as malnutrition. It is due to the presence of given aspect significant control over different risk and protective factors essential.
Impact of risk and protective factor on young children cognitive development
Cognitive development is the field of psychology which focuses on child’s development in terms of remembering things, decision making and problem-solving ability etc. Thus, it can be said that different risks and preventive factor will have an impact on the mental development of young children (Grisham-Brown, Hemmeter & Pretti-Frontczak, 2017). Herein, the type of environment followed by the parents of children will have a direct impact on their mental health. For example, if parents followed the practice of sleeping late at night. Then the given situation will have a direct impact on the cognitive development of young children. Here, for an effective development of brain sufficient sleep is required. In case if young children will not make the sleep of at least 8 hours then in the given situation they wake up as tired and will feel dizzy all day. The given thing will slow down the information process system. As a result of it, they will take more time in learning things in comparison to those children who take sufficient sleep of 8 hours in an effectual way.
Moreover, the parents should give sufficient nutrients to their children for proper cognitive development. This comes under the category of supervision from the side of parents. The deficiency of iron, iodine and Vitamin B12 will cause a negative impact on the mental health development (Leavy, Pope & Breatnach, 2018). It is the responsibility of parents that they should take care of such things. In addition to this, parents should spend sufficient time with their children. In this regard, they should play a different type of mental ability games with them. Here, in case if parents will not perform such type of things then in the given situation cognitive development of children will be affected. This is because the games like puzzle make the brain of young children more strong. This will enhance their capacity to process information and make a decision.
Using theory to explain the impact of risk and protective factors on young children learning and development
Risk factors are those which cause a negative impact on the young children learning and development. However, the preventive factor is those which have a positive impact on the young children learning and development. Here, with an aim to elaborate this more assistance is being taken from the different child development theories.
The first theory is of Bandura’s social learning theory. It is the social learning theory which is given by Albert Bandura. Here, theorist believes that human learning depends on reinforcement and conditioning process. This theory entails that an individual learns behavior through observing things. Here, by observing the behavior of parents and their peer member children learn new skills or acquire new information. For example, if children see that their parents constantly invite people at their home. Thus, the given thing will teach the social skill to children (Folque, 2017). Thus, as a result of this, they will also start adopting the same. Further, the impact of the same will be seen on their behavior. Here, they will start sharing things with other and showcases care and concern to other. However, in case if children observe that their parents regularly fight with each other. This type of situation will have a negative impact on the psychology of children. The given thing will lead them to the condition of stress. Thus, it is due to the presence of given aspect their mental development will be affected in a negative way.
The second theory is of Vygotsky’s Socio-cultural theory which is given by psychologist named as Lev Vygotsky. This theorist has shown the relationship between human learning and social process. This theory believes that social interaction plays a very significant role in the cognitive development of young children. Here, children which are surrounded by a peaceful and supportive environment will have positive cognitive development. This is because an environment plays a very important role in the life of children. Here, a child is able to learn the things faster if he/she is surrounded by the people who have the good mental ability. However, the absence of given thing will have a negative impact on the children in an effectual manner.
Here, theorist believes that the concept of scaffolding is related to the zone of proximal development. This entails that parents and teachers should change the quality and quantity of support which they provide to their child on a constant basis. Here, at first, parents should give instruction to their child in relation to any task and should provide significant support to them during the task. However, in case if the child understands task thoroughly then in the given situation parents should not help their children and they should just watch how they are performing things. Thus, the given type of thing will have an impact on positive cognitive development (Pellegrini & Galda, 2017).
Jean Piaget has given another theory which is called by the name of the cognitive theory. This entails that children learn or experience new information in an everyday situation. For example, if the child has an encounter with the small dog at that time he will believe that all dogs are small, furry and have four legs. However, if they face big dog at that time they will learn some new information. Thus, different factors play a very important role in the development and learning of young children.
Interventions that could promote young children learning and development
There are different strategies examined which can be used by parents and teachers with an aim to promote young children learning and development. At first, it is suggested to the parents that they should give a calm and nurturing environment to their children. In this regard, they should spend sufficient time with their children and must involve them in a different type of physical and mental activities. The given thing will have a positive effect on the children. This is because it has been seen that the type of environment in which children grows will have a significant impact on the overall development of children. For example, if a child sees their parents constant arguments and fights then the given situation will give stress to the children. As a result of its child mental capability will be affected and he/she will be affected by different type of mental condition (McLeod and et.al., 2017).
In addition to this, it is also recommended that teacher should change its way of teaching children. Herein, the teacher should raise the complexity of problem as per the mental capacity of children. For example, at first, some simple mental ability task should be given to young children. Here, once if they get well versed with the respective task then in the next phase teacher should raise the complexity level of the task. Thus, it is by complying with the given type of activity only an effective cognitive development of the young children will be assured (Ehri, 2017).
Moreover, parents should also make efforts in terms of involving or taking his child to different social functions. The given thing will enhance the social skills of children. Besides this, the given thing will also assist in developing several other things in children such as becoming an extrovert person, enhance communication skill and child will learn about some new things by meeting new people. These all will help in converting risk factors into protective factors (Gregory, 2017).
It can be concluded that it is not an easy task to develop or grow children. This is because, during the growing process children encountered with different type of factors which tend to cause significant impact on their overall development. Thus, it is require by parents that they should give consideration to different factors if they want that their child should develop well. In addition to this, it is also required by teachers that they should make significant changes in the learning module of children with an aim to enhance their learning experience. Thus, these all given practices will cause positive impact upon the young children learning and development.
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