research topic on medical ultrasound


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Adding ultrasound to standard mammography tests in breast screening could result in improved rates of detection for breast cancer in women Mammography can be used to detect cancer early, before the appearance of the clinical symptoms. But in some cases Mammography is unable to detect or screen cancer, that is some cancers are not been able to capture only through the mammography test or screening alone so for this additional ultrasound is required to detect the cancers at the earlier stages. So ultrasound is found as a safe adjunct screening tool that can capture or screen cancer which is missed on mammography screening. 
In detecting the breast cancer in women by adding the ultrasound to the mammography test has yielded a more positive result in detecting cancer at the earlier stage. Females at risk of breast cancer or dense breast tissue benefits from having the additional ultrasound to standard mammography as it enables to detect cancer at the earlier stage (Friedewald et al., 2014). Journal of American Medical Association has highlighted and pointed out that the additional ultrasound screening improves breast cancer detection rates. As annual ultrasound screening may detect small, node-negative breast cancers that are not seen on mammography.
Christian Nordqvist is a medical representative he in his medical report pointed out and highlighted that adding ultrasound screening to mammography to each annual screen, detection rates improved by 5.3 cancers per 1000 participants in the first year and 3.7 in the second and third years. An average of 4.3 per 1000 for each of the 3 round annual screening. But he also mentioned that adding the MRI screening will result in improved in the detection of cancer. The detection rates improved by 14.7 per 1000 participant (Tagliafico et al., 2016).
According to the ACS that is American Cancer Society ultrasound is a valuable tool that is widely available and noninvasive. They also urge that ultrasound is generally used as follow-up-test once a potential breast tumor has been discovered through a mammogram.
Research led by Professor Noriaki Ohuchi from Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, in Miyagi Japan. And the result shows that ultrasound combined with mammography resulted in correct identifications of cancer in more than  9 out of 10 cases (91 percent sensitivity), whereas for patient given mammography only that is alone mammography, just over three quarters of  tests correctly identified breast cancer (77 percent sensitivity) (Ohuchi et al., 2016). So it has been found from the various research that many developed, as well as developing countries, are adopting the mammography screening alone to detect the breast cancers. This disease is very much increasing in Gulf as well as in Australia.
At the end, it can be concluded that adding the ultrasound to mammography results in more accurate screening results for detecting the cancers. Which will lead to improved treatment and it will also reduce the deaths from the cancer disease.

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Ohuchi, N., Suzuki, A., Sobue, T., Kawai, M., Yamamoto, S., Zheng, Y. F., & Endo, T. (2016). Sensitivity and specificity of mammography and adjunctive ultrasonography to screen for breast cancer in the Japan Strategic Anti-cancer Randomized Trial (J-START): a randomized controlled trial. The Lancet, 387(10016), 341-348.
Friedewald, S. M., Rafferty, E. A., Rose, S. L., Durand, M. A., Plecha, D. M., Greenberg, J. S & Barke, L. D. (2014). Breast cancer screening using tomosynthesis in combination with digital mammography. Jama, 311(24), 2499-2507.
Tagliafico, A. S., Calabrese, M., Mariscotti, G., Durando, M., Tosto, S., Monetti, F., & Signori, A. (2016). Adjunct screening with tomosynthesis or ultrasound in women with mammography-negative dense breasts: interim report of a prospective comparative trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 34(16), 1882-1888.

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