Relationship with spending on maternal health and infant mortality
Infant and Maternal health has a direct relationship. It is the women who give birth to a child thus the life expectancy of child in its initial years is highly dependent upon how is the health of mother is. According to Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2015 report, the major causes of infant deaths are birth defects, preterm birth, low birth weight, maternal pregnancy syndrome and injuries like suffocation. As per WHO data, almost $6.5 [USA] trillion is spent across the globe that means $948 per person on an average which is not a small amount but the spending is uneven across the world.
In this report, expenditure on maternal health care and infant deaths are taken as research study where we would like to establish correlation existence between these two things. This research will highlight the impact of spending money on maternal health that can bring positive results to infant mortality rate. Is this the only way to reduce infant mortality? What are obstacles in spending money on maternal health? Caring women health can help to reduce infant mortality? These are some the key areas of this research study.
According to Saradiya Mukherjee [et.al 2013] report, the household expenditure on healthcare in urban area is 2 times to rural area. Poverty is one of the essential factor that is affecting accessibility and education of healthcare services. According to the study, if you save a mother’s life, it will help to save the infant life as well because without her the rate of mortality chance becomes 3-4 times. The study has proved that every pregnancy is wanted brings cost savings and concrete benefits to maternal and child health, poverty reduction and gender equality.
According to a study done by WHO, it is found that investing in women’s healthcare will make each mother a better nourished mother. This will help household to spend less money on healthcare afterwards to manage economy. One of the major problem that investment in healthcare of women is family planning. Access to emergency obstetric care is limited in many parts of the world (especially African and South Asian region). The increase in cost of food grains caused especially lower income family women to face inadequate nutrient and this comes as mal nutrition for infants to survive against diseases. [Than, K. K.,et.al2018]
Does investing in maternal healthcare brings down mortality of infant? WHO has given evidences to this case. According to the source, [Nilsson, C., et.al2018] Sri Lanka’s maternal mortality rate was 500/100000 during 1950 with US$270 per capita. It managed to reach 100/100000 rate by 1970 mid and now it’s around 50. Though they had limited resources but their investment in maternal health gave this success. This they achieved through free healthcare services, development of emergency obstetric, skilled birth attendant availability.
According to Sonalde Desai [et.al 1998], under the survey of 22 developing country, the examination were done on infant mortality, child height for age and immunization status. He found a strong relationship between maternal education and child health. With the reduction of 1% decreases in the healthcare spending, the excess of 90 deaths associated with maternity were witnessed.
H0- Correlation exists between expenditure on maternal health and infant mortality rate.
H1- There is no relation between maternal health and infant mortality rate.
The hypothesis takes both positive and negative impact of social media. The level of significant is taken 0.05 [Eriksson, K.,et.al2017]
Is there a positive or negative correlation between maternal health expenditure and infant mortality rate?
Secondary Research Questions-
- What is the relevance of spending money on materiality healthcare?
- Does family income has influence over maternal health?
- Can financial and non-financial assistance from government and non-government organization on maternal expenditure improve the maternal healthcare and infant mortality reduction?
- How improvement in maternal health will improve infant mortality reduction rate?
Research Design and Methodology
The steps under this quantitative research design-
Purpose of study- To understand how far the two aspects are related. This will help to understand expenditure on maternal health can reduce infant mortality to what extent.
Literature Review- We took various research reports and journals to get some idea about the purpose of study and also it is going to help in carrying out sampling, data collection, analysis and testing hypothesis. [Pillay, T.,et.al2017]
Research design- The method of research we have taken is quantitative in nature. It is a correlational study between maternal healthcare expenditure and infant mortality thereon.
Sampling- The population used for collecting relevant data for the purpose of study.
Collection of data- The methods adopted to collect relevant data under study. Here interviews, questionnaire and previous findings were used. The sources of data collection are mostly secondary in nature.
Analysis of data- The use of Statistical analysis for establishing the existence of correlation.
Reporting- This research study is meant for both academic and social cause.
Ethical consideration- The factor of confidentiality, reliability, safety etc. applied during research process. [Dowell, C. M et.al2018]
For this research study, both primary and secondary data collection method has been used. For the primary data, a structured questionnaire were given to the sample population. For secondary data, the published research reports and journals were collected from enumerators.
Quantitative data analysis
Data cleaning- Any ambiguous data is kept out the research process to arrive at appropriate result. Content analysis will be done in order to capture open ended question’s information.
Data coding- Numerical will be assigned to the responses of given population. Data classification will be done in order to put similar nature data at one place.
Data presenting- Tables and charts will be used in order to summarize coding data. To analyse the data for interpretation, SPSS, ANOVA and Chi-square test will be used based on research design.
Data interpretation- Based on the data analysis, key finding will be interpreted as per researcher’s judgement.
Sampling and Sample Size
For the purpose of study, judgemental sampling is considered. The sample population will be 50 women who were selected from Arizona judicial district of USA. Apart from this, 4 healthcare organizations were also considered under sample study.
For validity- Repeated answers are clubbed into one. The responses and data collections were done during research process and their sources are recorded, to test the authenticity, we have verified the existence of data after data analysis.
Reliability- All responses were collected when the respondent is in sound mind. All secondary responses are collected from previous research reports and journals.
Moreover the expenditure on healthcare of mothers varies due to currency and economy fluctuation thus what would be the exact expenditure determination is impossible. Most of the collected data are taken directly under study, especially the secondary data collected from [Callaghan, W. M.et.al 2017] WHO, CDC and UNICEF without cross checking of data validity and reliability. The sample population under study doesn’t represent the entire population thus there may be variation of results. The time limit and resources for conducting research is limited.
Desai, S., & Alva, S. (1998). Maternal education and child health: Is there a strong causal relationship?. Demography, 35(1), 71-81.
Than, K. K., Tin, K. N., La, T., Thant, K. S., Myint, T., Beeson, J. G., ... & Morgan, A. (2018). The potential of task shifting selected maternal interventions to auxiliary midwives in Myanmar: a mixed-method study. BMC public health, 18(1), 99.
Fraser, A., Catov, J. M., Lawlor, D. A., & Rich-Edwards, J. W. (2018). Pregnancy characteristics and women’s cardiovascular health. In Handbook of Life Course Health Development (pp. 145-165). Springer, Cham.
Nilsson, C., Hessman, E., Sjöblom, H., Dencker, A., Jangsten, E., Mollberg, M., ... & Begley, C. (2018). Definitions, measurements and prevalence of fear of childbirth: a systematic review. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 18(1), 28.
WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health, & World Health Organization. (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health: Commission on Social Determinants of Health final report. World Health Organization.
Jha, S. K., & Singh, N. V. (2018). Assessing Burden of Infant Mortality on Socio-Economic Classes in North-Eastern India. In Issues on Health and Healthcare in India (pp. 241-253). Springer, Singapore.
Dowell, C. M., Mejia, G. C., Preen, D. B., & Segal, L. (2018). Maternal incarceration, child protection, and infant mortality: a descriptive study of infant children of women prisoners in Western Australia. Health & Justice, 6(1), 2.
Pillay, T., Porter, K., & Marson, S. (2017). Developing an early life Parent Education Programme in response to high infant mortality rates. Journal of Neonatal Nursing.
Callaghan, W. M., MacDorman, M. F., Shapiro-Mendoza, C. K., & Barfield, W. D. (2017). Explaining the recent decrease in US infant mortality rate, 2007–2013. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 216(1), 73-e1.
Eriksson, K., Niemesh, G. T., & Thomasson, M. (2017). Revising Infant Mortality Rates for the Early 20th Century United States (No. w23263). National Bureau of Economic Research.