In a paper (5 pages minimum) respond to the following:
1. Identify and describe ways that terrorism has impacted the police mission in the U.S. Be sure to provide examples. Describe at least two disagreements that exist regarding the appropriate law enforcement behavior to fight terrorism and maintain personal liberties.
2. What role does social stigma play in police ethics? Describe this role. Give specific examples from your reading or your experiences, where social stigma played a role in furthering police corruption and where it played a role in reducing it.
3. Are the ethical forces behind police corruption the same as those involved in police abuses of force? Identify four components of public corruption within the criminal justice field, and describe the strategies used to control this corruption. Support your answer.
4. Define and discuss individual conscience and police assignments using specific examples. Explain how training can prepare would-be police officers for the ethical dilemmas they will face. Provide examples.
The paper will be a minimum of five (5) double-spaced pages using a 12-point font. It must be in American Psychological Association (APA) format.
1. United States is the symbol of Western dominance over the world but it was seriously challenged by an unprecedented and one of the most unfortunate events in the history of America – 9/11 Attack of 2001. Without a shred of doubt, this incident proved to be an inflection point that changed our world entirely. The impression that this incident left in the minds of the people was such that it greatly affected the way we view our safety. Most of all the police and law enforcement agencies have been deeply impacted, so, they enhanced their methodologies for pursuing their duties and tasks(Baldwin, 2003). It was the precise reason as to why a whole department of Homeland Security came into being. This department changed the landscape of security framework of the country in many ways.
Now, there is a heightened coordination regarding security at the state level, increased collection, analysis and sharing of confidential information as well as intelligence. The key assets and critical infrastructure are better protected now along with enhancing the security of territorial embrace in borders, air space and seas. Advanced equipment, tactics, weapons and training have been incorporated for this purpose. In 2008, an attempt of carrying out attacks on US and European targets was foiled by the security forces in Columbus Ohio. It indicated that the country’s security infrastructure has been greatly enhanced. The disagreements that arise here is Federal Government considers that it has superior equipment and resources. Secondly, the local departments feel that once the Federal Government gets involved in law enforcement acts, they don’t get the credit(Moeckli, n.d.).
2. Social stigma is refers to a situation when a person is socially being disapproved of on the basis of his/her characteristics, religion, cast, creed and nationality. It is more of a perception that has already attributed to the person. To some extent, the police ethics are also affected by social stigma. The fact that police are also members of the society, they, in certain situations, tend to develop special attachments with regards to various matters even while practicing their duties(Hansson &Markström, 2014). They also are not free from their own set of beliefs, biases and prejudices.
While we are of the view that social stigma should absolutely done away with as far as police ethics are concerned. However, it is not always the case as examples are replete that suggest police personnel have falsely fabricated some people because of their conspicuous appearances as well as belonging to a certain religion. It is all the more pertinent for the police and law enforcement agencies that they should not reflect any prejudice in their profession. In American society, African Americans have to suffer a lot because of being black and there are number of circumstances when police were seen aggravating social stigma by playing into the stereotype. They make black drivers to pull over their vehicles and as per the records, more than 30 percent of people are black who were stopped by the police personnel. The LGBT community is not far behind in getting stigmatized by the police.
3. There are certain elements working behind the police corruptionand they exhibit similar kind of practices that are also involved in police abuses of force. The first element has to be the conspicuous lack of integrity as certain immoral and unethical people approach the profession of police as something that allows them to misuse the power provide them with the opportunity of taking bribes. Which is why the police corruption also leads to their brutality in a number of situations. The lack of integrity manifests in the form of misuse of power on the part of police officials and because for the show-off of this power, these officials themselves violate the laws(Punch, 2013).
The second element is the lack of leadership, which in turn renders the performances of police directionless as well as ineffective. Leadership strengthens the commitment of police officials to enforce law and take right steps regardless of the situation. It is the leader who questions the biasness and social stigma of certain police officials and inspire them to shed such notions once and for all. Thirdly, the character plays an important part in the proper dispensation of duties and responsibilities for the police personnel. A good character is always itself characterized by a sense of responsibility, accountability and ethical approach. The police officials who are very particular about their character are also the ones who want to send out a message to the society and other police officers that such acts of responsible behavior can bring out positive changes in the society(Myhill& Bradford, 2013). Fourthly, truth and standing by the side of truth is a supreme form of practicing ethics in police profession as it safeguards the moral fabric of the society.
4. There is absolutely no point in framing laws in the absence of ethics because it is ethics that form the central pillar upon which the laws are followed by the citizens. The individual and personal ethics are extremely important in terms of conforming of law on the part of police officials. The personal conscience of these officials allow them to be just and fair towards everyone. It is important that for the candidates to show and exhibit evidences regarding personal conscience because it makes them trustworthy with high degree of morality(Adams, 2010).
Training is also provided to the police officers to strengthen their moral principles so that they could dispense ethical behaviors and time and again and for setting good precedence for future officers. Training is also very important in terms of effective policing because it relies to a great extent on the ingrained and inborn personal characters as well as traits rather than the achievements in the field of education. Some psychological theorists have postulated some reasons for the prevalent corruption in some police forces as the lack of faith for the mankind. They then force their anger on the members of society through the abusive means for fulfilling selfish objectives.
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Adams, R. (2010). Police Corruption, Deviance, Accountability and Reform in Policing. Policing, 4(4), 322-325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/police/paq046
Baldwin, F. (2003). Money laundering countermeasures with primary focus upon terrorism and the USA Patriot Act 2001. Journal Of Money Laundering Control, 6(2), 105-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13685200310809473
Hansson, L. &Markström, U. (2014). The effectiveness of an anti-stigma intervention in a basic police officer training programme: a controlled study. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-14-55
Moeckli, D. Human Rights Strategies in an Age of Counter-Terrorism. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1189722
Myhill, A. & Bradford, B. (2013). Overcoming cop culture? Organizational justice and police officers’ attitudes toward the public. Policing: An International Journal Of Police Strategies & Management, 36(2), 338-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13639511311329732
Punch, M. (2013). Police Corruption. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.