Psychosocial Intervention of Law

Briefly summarize the article "Characteristics of young offenders depending on the type of crime by Keren Cuervoa, Lidón Villanuevaa, Francisco Gonzálezb*, Cruz Carriónc, and Pilar Busquetsc" and include the sections on methods and results. Then explain how the sample size, sample characteristics, and sample selection influenced the results of the study and why.


This research paper has focused on defining the profile of juvenile offenders based on the type of crime. The researchers selected 395 adolescents between the ages from 14 to 18 from the Valencian region in Spain. In the sample selected, 395 were males and 51.4% of the crimes committed were against the person. From the total juvenile, 36, 31 and 25 were from Eastern Europe, Latin America and African countries respectively. The researchers advocated that the results derived from the study will be useful in designing crime prevention and offender intervention programmes. The paper has divided the crime into two categories, they are, the type of crime against the person and the type of crime against the property. Citing few papers initially, researchers suggest that the percentage of crime against property is higher than the crime against person. Moreover, the number of offences increases as minors get older, and crime committed by males are greater in number than the females. 
The research illustrates that the number of foreign young offenders has grown exponentially in comparison to the number of Spaniards over the last five years. It also illustrates the recidivism among the juveniles, however not succinctly due to the lack of effort made by the researchers to collect enough data.

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The paper also mentions the involvement of risk factors. It suggests that greater the presence of these factors, the more likely the occurrence of a situation involving juvenile delinquency. It divided risk into two groups: (i) Factors more of an individual nature such as low empathy, remorse, self-control and acceptance of responsibilities, and impulsiveness; (ii) Factors based on context such as problematic families, negligent parenting styles, behavioral problems at school, substance use, and others. 
This research paper has focused on determining whether the profile of young offenders charged with committing crimes against property and against persons varies according to different socio-demographic variables (gender, age, nationality) and different indicators of juvenile risk. In the initial stage of the study, researchers assumed that the crimes against persons will be committed in a higher proportion by older adolescents, girls and foreign minors (mainly North African). 
The researchers had used the instrument ‘Youth Level of Case Management Inventory of Hoge and Andrews to study the minor’s risk of recidivism based on information provided. It included 42 risk factors grouped into 8 areas. They confirmed that their use of Cronbach’s alpha statistic shows high internal consistency of the instrument. Also, use of contingency tables and chi-square tests were done.
The results showed that data on crime and age has no significance as per 14-18 years are concerned, male were found more violent than female. Eastern European countries’ juvenile were oriented towards property crime. In the group of crimes against persons, there are no big difference between re-offending and non reoffending crimes.
Influence of sample size, characteristics, and selection on the study:
The sample had no equal numbers of male and female, as from 395 juvenile, only 74 were female. This shows that the results were more biased towards male population and it can be generalized for male population but for female due to inadequate sample. It is obvious that, more the size of the sample, more it is the representative of the larger population.
Also, more Spaniards were in the sample in comparison to the number of foreign juveniles. For example, only 25 respondents were from African countries. This 25 juveniles cannot be the representative of whole population or the total number of juveniles from African countries Therefore, we cannot even rely on this research as per the results on country versus juvenile cases are concerned.
The research thus seems distorted in terms of sample selection. The researchers should have collected more samples from all other characteristics such as number of females, juveniles from other nationality, and others.

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