Psychological Phenomena of Research

 

 

False memories or recovered memories? Use psychological research to support your position.

 

While digging into secure memory vaults linked to one's mind, the retrieval of information can be successfully done. The psychological phenomenon associated with something that has not taken place is considered to be false memory (Conway, M. A., & Loveday, C., 2015; Frenda, S. J. et al., 2014; Kaplan, R. L. et al., 2016; Otgaar, H. et al., 2014). The association is with childhood abuse to a greater extent . The investigation of the phenomenon was done by Pierre Janet along with Sigmund Freud. The memories are being distorted with the recollection of the past events. 
The influences pertaining to the inaccurate eyewitnesses too who are testimonies have a significant outcomes while associated with court verdicts. Recovered memories on the other hand have an influence liked to healing (Patihis, L., Ho, L. Y., Tingen, I. W., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Loftus, E. F., 2014; Wong, C. L., 2017; Barnier, A. et al., 2004; Fisher, R. P., & Schreiber, N., 2017; Kobayashi, M., & Tanno, Y., 2015). While the repressed memories related to past events are being dug in order that it can have a healing impact on the person (Patihis, L., Ho, L. Y., Tingen, I. W., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Loftus, E. F., 2014; Wong, C. L., 2017; Barnier, A. et al., 2004; Fisher, R. P., & Schreiber, N., 2017; Kobayashi, M., & Tanno, Y., 2015). While recovering such memories, the act of confrontation does come up while recovering the memories from past. In various cases, the criminal courts with the aid of successful prosecutions have been attempting the recovering of memories from people leading to significant outcomes. 
The concern existing with respect to adoption of recovery methodology in order to heal and remember the past incidents with the aid of therapists. There can be various techniques deployed though for recovered memories (Patihis, L., Ho, L. Y., Tingen, I. W., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Loftus, E. F., 2014; Wong, C. L., 2017; Barnier, A. et al., 2004; Fisher, R. P., & Schreiber, N., 2017; Kobayashi, M., & Tanno, Y., 2015). While there is mixture of accuracy and inaccuracy that can pertain to the recovered memories, the false memories on the other hand will rarely have the accurate memories of past (Toffalini, E. et al., 2014; Wilson, B. M. et al., 2015; Toffalini, E. et al., 2015; Rosenstreich, E., 2016; Riba, J. et al., 2015). The syndrome associated to the false memory is the false memory syndrome. 
The experience of false memories can persist even with the non-suffering from the syndrome too. The same would not be applicable in case of recovered memories (Schwarz, N., Newman, E., & Leach, W., 2016; Toffalini, E. et al., 2014; Wilson, B. M. et al., 2015; Toffalini, E. et al., 2015; Rosenstreich, E., 2016; Riba, J. et al., 2015). The false reports pertaining to the entire event can be well framed in case of the false memories. It is much easier to implant the memory for a particular event in case the person believes that the event would be physically possible and it would happen, for the likeliness is there. 
There are many researchers who have also investigated the case wherein the people do differ in case wherein the susceptibility to such false memories is more (Toffalini, E. et al., 2014; Wilson, B. M. et al., 2015; Toffalini, E. et al., 2015; Rosenstreich, E., 2016; Riba, J. et al., 2015; Conway, M. A., & Loveday, C., 2015; Frenda, S. J. et al., 2014; Kaplan, R. L. et al., 2016; Otgaar, H. et al., 2014). The individual difference would measure up to area pertaining to the dissociative tendencies. Such tendencies do pertain in case wherein the difficulty is associated in terms of integration of the thoughts, images and the various memories (Barnier, A. et al., 2004; Fisher, R. P., & Schreiber, N., 2017; Kobayashi, M., & Tanno, Y., 2015). The link is further related to the spaciness and the cognitive failures. 
In case wherein the disassociation is closely associated with the susceptibility based on the experiments. There is a strong link that can be well established between the false memories and the disassociation. The tendency though to be disassociated is linked to the history with respect to some abuse (Toffalini, E. et al., 2014; Wilson, B. M. et al., 2015; Toffalini, E. et al., 2015; Rosenstreich, E., 2016; Riba, J. et al., 2015; Conway, M. A., & Loveday, C., 2015; Frenda, S. J. et al., 2014; Kaplan, R. L. et al., 2016; Otgaar, H. et al., 2014). The recovered memories on the other hand is being disassociated with the past event due to the mental capacities being impacted by any such event taking place in a person’s life. 
Most of the childhood sexual abuse go without confrontation and come in limelight only with the aid of the recovered memories. The recent surveys have also been associating the recovered memories to the extent of disclosure rate (Shuttleworth, S., 2017; Ricker, T. J. et al., 2015; Mazzoni, G., & Lynn, S. J., 2017; Hebscher, M., Barkan-Abramski, M., Goldsmith, M., Aharon-Peretz, J., & Gilboa, A., 2016). The researchers also associate that there is lack of willingness in case of disclosing, while being opposed to the lack of memory provisions an explanation to the non-disclosure and few cases would arise in case of forgetting. Barnier Hung et al (2004) reported evidence associated with the retrieval induced forgetting and this was linked to negative, positive and neutral events with respect to autobiographies (Barnier, A. et al., 2004). The debate with respect to false memories and recovered memories does persist till date. The various factors that impact the memories have a drastic effect in terms of our abilities while the memories are being recalled. This is significant and the increased focus on the issue would persist. 

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References

Barnier, A., Hung, L., & Conway, M. (2004). Retrieval?induced forgetting of emotional and unemotional autobiographical memories. Cognition and emotion, 18(4), 457-477. 
Conway, M. A., & Loveday, C. (2015). Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings. Consciousness and cognition, 33, 574-581.
Fisher, R. P., & Schreiber, N. (2017). Interview protocols to improve eyewitness memory. The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology: Volume I: Memory for Events.
Frenda, S. J., Patihis, L., Loftus, E. F., Lewis, H. C., & Fenn, K. M. (2014). Sleep deprivation and false memories. Psychological Science, 25(9), 1674-1681.
Hebscher, M., Barkan-Abramski, M., Goldsmith, M., Aharon-Peretz, J., & Gilboa, A. (2016). Memory, decision-making, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC): the roles of subcallosal and posterior orbitofrontal cortices in monitoring and control processes. Cerebral Cortex, 26(12), 4590-4601.
Kaplan, R. L., Van Damme, I., Levine, L. J., & Loftus, E. F. (2016). Emotion and false memory. Emotion Review, 8(1), 8-13.
Kobayashi, M., & Tanno, Y. (2015). Remembering episodic memories is not necessary for forgetting of negative words: Semantic retrieval can cause forgetting of negative words. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 22(3), 766-771.
Mazzoni, G., & Lynn, S. J. (2017). Using hypnosis in eyewitness memory: Past and current issues. M Toglia, JD Read, DF Ross and RCL Lindsay, The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology, 1.
Otgaar, H., Howe, M. L., Peters, M., Smeets, T., & Moritz, S. (2014). The production of spontaneous false memories across childhood. Journal of experimental child psychology, 121, 28-41.

Patihis, L., Ho, L. Y., Tingen, I. W., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Loftus, E. F. (2014). Are the “memory wars” over? A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory. Psychological Science, 25(2), 519-530.

Riba, J., Valle, M., Sampedro, F., Rodriguez-Pujadas, A., Martinez-Horta, S., Kulisevsky, J., & Rodriguez-Fornells, A. (2015). Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories. Molecular psychiatry, 20(6), 772.

Ricker, T. J., Vergauwe, E., Hinrichs, G. A., Blume, C. L., & Cowan, N. (2015). No recovery of memory when cognitive load is decreased. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41(3), 872.
Rosenstreich, E. (2016). Mindfulness and false-memories: the impact of mindfulness practice on the DRM paradigm. The Journal of psychology, 150(1), 58-71.
Schwarz, N., Newman, E., & Leach, W. (2016). Making the truth stick & the myths fade: Lessons from cognitive psychology. Behavioral Science & Policy, 2(1), 85-95.
Shuttleworth, S. (2017). ‘The malady of thought’Embodied memory in Victorian psychology and the novel. In Memory and Memorials (pp. 46-59). Routledge.
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Toffalini, E., Mirandola, C., Coli, T., & Cornoldi, C. (2015). High trait anxiety increases inferential false memories for negative (but not positive) emotional events. Personality and Individual Differences, 75, 201-204.
Toffalini, E., Mirandola, C., Drabik, M. J., Melinder, A., & Cornoldi, C. (2014). Emotional negative events do not protect against false memories in young adults with depressive–anxious personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 14-18.
Wilson, B. M., Mickes, L., Stolarz-Fantino, S., Evrard, M., & Fantino, E. (2015). Increased false-memory susceptibility after mindfulness meditation. Psychological science, 26(10), 1567-1573.

Wong, C. L. (2017). Retrieval-Induced Forgetting via Social Media: The Mnemonic Consequences of Posting Pictures on Instagram. City University of New York John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

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