Methods of Teaching and Learning


Question: Teaching & Learning



In this present paper, we will discuss the three common methods of teaching and the methods to teach different abilities in the same classroom and on the basis of its conclusion has been made. The teaching method involves the methods and principles which are used to teach the students by implementing these methods to achieve the desired learning outcomes. The strategies of teaching mainly depend on the subject and nature of learner. The method used for teaching must be according to the character and efficiency of a learner. The approaches of teaching are mainly divided into two categories, namely, teacher-centered approach and student-centered approach. 

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Three methods of Teaching

The students act as an empty vessels and teachers play an important role in deciding the methodology used to teach the learner. The primary role of students is to receive the information which is delivered by the teachers through different methods of teaching and learning. In teacher-centered approach, both the teacher and students are treated as different entities. In a student-centered approach both the teacher and learner plays an equal role in the learning process. Following are the three common methods of teaching:

  • Lecturing: The lecture teaching method is the primary method to teach the students in the schools and colleges. It is the most convenient method to teach a large number of students at the same time (Richards et al., 2014). The lecturing method is considered as the standard method to teach the college courses because it delivers the information to a large number of students by the professors in the classrooms. The information decides by the teacher according to the lesson plan. The students act a passive role by receiving the information given by the teachers.

  • Demonstrating: It is also the common method to teach the students through examples and experiments which help to remember by the students easily. It is the combination of visual evidence and reasoning associated with it. The demonstration methods are similar to the written storytelling in which the student can easily memorize by personally relate with an example. It helps to increase the interest of the student in learning by providing the relation between the facts and the real world (Reece et al., 2016).

  • Collaboration and discussion: It is defined as the method of teaching with the active participation of the students in the learning process. In this method both the teacher and learner listen to each other and understand the point of view of each other. The collaboration creates a personal connection between the learner and teacher (Forray et al., 2016). The collaboration includes different types of forms such as class discussion, fishbowl discussion and other. After the discussions, the feedback is given by the teachers.

Lesson designing strategy for Different ability students

There are different types of learners in the class who are having different capabilities, the degree of learning, strength, and weaknesses which need to be understood by the teacher to complete the goal of learning the process. These types of classes are known as mixed ability classes. The mixed ability factors which influence the characteristics of the learners include style of learning, cultural background, mother tongue, the age of maturity and others. The challenges faced by the teachers include individual awareness, discipline, interest, effective learning for all, participation in the class, and others. Following are the strategies to design special lesson to teach different ability students:

  1. Supportive learning environment: The supportive learning environment is very necessary to create an effective learning process which helps to develop the confidence among the learners and helps to perform the best according to the individual capabilities (Cohen et al., 2014).

  2. Classroom management: The classroom management plays an important role in achieving the aim of learning the process. It includes the organization of classroom to increase the potential of learners, praise and encourage students, develop a positive attitude of the learners, managing of learning activities with providing good instructions, and others (Moore et al., 2014). 

  3. Personalization: It includes the activities which allow the students to learn in a most effective way through personal connect with the learner. It helps to increase the level of confidence by motivating the learner and generate the interest by connecting the learning activities with the learner's area of interest.

Following is a lesson plan for different ability students in the same class:
Content Area: English/Language Arts    Fine Art Area: Visual Art    Lesson Title: Reading 
Grade Level: 1-5    Duration: 45 Minutes    Teacher: Susan
Standard and Alignment
Content Area Standards:
Reading/ Comprehension of literature text/ literary Non-fiction:
The lesson should be understand by the student, use inferences and make conclusion about the structural patterns and features of literary friction and respond by giving evidence from the text to support understanding.
Fine Arts Standards:
Visual Art:
Select and evaluate the range of subject matter, ideas and symbols.
Visual Art: Explain how an artist’s use the principles and elements in an artwork to support the purpose of a lesson.
Big idea: Use media to explain the viewpoint of others.    Essential Questions: What do you understand by something means?
21st Century skills:    Information literacy, Media literacy, Creativity, Collaboration    Key Vocabulary:    Verb, tone, branding, marketing, infer and convince
Vertical Alignment    Before lesson
Use of context clues and understanding of elements of art    During Lesson:
Use of evidence to support an inference about piece of art    After Lesson:

Use of advance knowledge to create a work of art which requires inference form the audience
Material list:    Elements of art, Use of internet, projector or screen, use of marker and paper, use of advertising examples

Report to teach different ability students in same class

The differentiated instruction strategy is used to different ability student in the same class which helps to encourage the teacher to adopt how they teach, what they teach and how to interact with the students and others. The differentiation instruction strategy helps in teaching the students by providing the guidelines for diagnostic assessment, circular content, instruction practices and student products. The diagnostic assessment describe the criteria to assess the range of knowledge, skills, learning needs and interest of student in the class. It also helps to disclose the special need required by the student. The circular content describes the scope of content which is appropriate for all the students in the same class. The instruction practices must be prepared in such a manner which can be understood by the students. The student products must demonstrate the mastery to every student.

Three Models of teaching

Following are the three methods of teaching and learning:

  1. Cultural Model: It is defined as the model in which important information and ideas are transferred in a target language and student encounter various expressions and words. In this model the student learns different ideology and culture. The model emphasize on the knowledge about the text rather than focusing on individual text. 

  2. Language Model: In this model the language development is emphasized by favoring the teaching of literature in which vocabulary and structures have been teach for the development of language. However the model is criticized because it works as a mechanistic process which does not motivate the students. According to learning model the activities are learner centered and they emphasize on the way of using the language because linguistic form deliver the message beyond the literal interpretations.

  3. Personal growth Model: According to this model the personal development is engaged with the reading of literature texts but the liking towards literature does not confined only to the classrooms. It is more students centered. The aim of the model is to motivate the student for reading by choosing the theme which is related to the personal development. It encourages the students to read and analyze the reading importance for the personal development.


The teaching methods include the principles and methods which help to teach the learner in the most efficient and effective way by fulfilling the aim of learning the process. The teaching method is broadly divided into two approaches, namely, teacher-centered approach and student-centered approach. The three common methods of learning include learning, demonstrating and collaboration. The lecture method is the most common method used for teaching the large number of students and it is the standard method of teaching college courses. The demonstrating methods include the teaching through examples and experiments which help to increase the level of interest and create more understanding of concepts. The collaboration method of teaching includes class discussions and fishbowl discussion in which both the learner and teacher interact and discuss the individual point of view. The feedback and lesson are given by the teacher at the end of the process. The mixed ability classes include the students with different learning capabilities, strength, and weakness. The factors which influence the characteristics of learners include cultural background, mother tongue, the age of maturity and others. The strategies to design the special lesson to teach different ability students in the same class include supportive learning environment, classroom management, and personalization which help to achieve the aim of learning the process by teaching the different ability people in the same class. 

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  • Cohen, E. G., & Lotan, R. A. (2014). Designing Groupwork: Strategies for the Heterogeneous Classroom Third Edition. Teachers College Press.

  • Forray, J. M., Leigh, J. S., & Goodnight, J. E. (2016). Teaching methods and the Kolb learning cycle. Educating for Responsible Management: Putting Theory into Practice, 325.

  • Moore, K. D. (2014). Effective instructional strategies: From theory to practice. Sage Publications.

  • Reece, I., & Walker, S. (2016). Teaching, training and learning: A practical guide. Business Education Publishers Ltd.

  • Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge university press.

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