1. Assertiveness training
2. Conflict resolution
3. Communication along with interviewing techniques
4. Crisis interventions
5. Relaxation techniques
6. Behaviour modifications
7. Stress management
8. Conflict of resolution
Also the counseling is the significant intervention under the one to one interaction along with the patients during the presentation of psycho education groups and also the planning, medications along with the discharge planning groups(Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium., 2013). Thereby, the patients with the family members and also the other significant have the opportunity as per the concerned problems of the patient. The counselor or the nurse should provide the reassurance for the clarification as per the requirement has been arisen; the reassurance has helped with the patient for regaining the self-confidence with the decrement of the feelings for the guilt, fear and the anxiety. Also the clarification also helps with the patient that would gain the clearer picture as per the reality for understanding the behaviour and the feelings(Brown, Beck, Steer, & Grisham, 2000).
• Anxiety for taking care of family and children;
• Belinda has taken lots of stress and cannot sleep properly at night;
• Losing weight;
• Lack of proper diet
• Lack of proper sleep and rest.
• Cannot communicate with an easy manner
• Feeling lonely to be killed herself
• Cries easily in any matter.
PREVENTION OF TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT PLANNING
Primarily, the cause the major depressive disorder is remained unknown. The biopsychological model is being proposed in case of biological, psychological along with the social factors which are playing a significant role caused under depression. Under the diathesis-stress model, it has been specified that the depression results has ben preexisting the vulnerability might be caused from genetic issue and thus implies the interaction between the nature and nurture with the schematic condition. The views are resulted under the world that learned from the childhood(Demyttenaere, et al., 2004).
In case of depression the followings can be the risk factors:
2. Psychological or,
In case of Belinda, the risk is associated with her psychiatric problem is the depression or trauma that is generated as per the genetic issue or about the trauma that may be have arisen due to the excessive negative thinking during and after the pregnancy period.
It is also noted that in acute psychiatric hospitals, the organization is not obliged always for accepting all kind of mental patients. There are patients with psychoses or addiction with major depression get admission to the psychiatric hospital for minimizing the possible risks. As per the level in case of depression, the risks can be associated with the suicidal tendencies or violence etc. in most of the cases(McAlpine & Mechanic, 2002).
Also in case of hospital, there is the risk of shortage of staff or prolonged absence from the work.
Other non-clinical types of risks are associated with that, economic, construction along with the infrastructural or fire risks.
MODELS UNDER COUNSELING OF MENTAL HEALTH:
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As per this model the Freud’s idea for the psychosexual development would not be followed. Moreover, the stages under the social development over the life span are considered as significant under the model. On the other hand, the lifetime experiences can be examined and identified with the defense mechanism. The patient is thus helped through the learning of appropriate decision making of skills along with the behaviour. The psychodynamic therapy has been involved in case of long term therapy, but it is not long therapy as psychoanalysis(Gronholm, Thornicroft, Laurens, & Evans-Lacko, 2017).
There are three most of common treatments for depression are associated are psychotherapy, medication along with the electroconvulsive therapy.
In case of Belinda, besides the electrotherapy, it is recommended of physical exercise for moderating effect on the symptoms. The exercise may have the effective for the unipolar major depression. It is also equivalent to use the medications or the therapies. Moreover, exercise is being recommended to the people who are willing to motivate along with physically healthy enough in case to participate with the exercise program as the treatment.
As Belinda is suffering for less amount of night sleep, this depressive symptom can also be improved by proper exercise and diet.
The counselling is most common psychotherapy which is mostly effective in any case of mental disorder.
On the other hand, the cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT along with the interpersonal psychotherapy or IPT are the most common treatment at present scenarios in case of preferred therapies in adolescent depression(DeMaso, et al., 2017).
CBT is mostly effective in case of depressed adolescents although the effects for severe episodes may not be known. The different variables can be predicted as per the success for the cognitive behavioral therapy, like higher levels for rational thoughts, fewer cognitive distortions, less hopelessness or suffering with fewer negative thoughts(Spinazzola, et al., 2017).
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. (2013). Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. . The Lancet, 1371-1379.
DeMaso, D., Calderon, J., Taylor, G., Holland, J., Stopp, C., White, M., . . . Newburger, J. (2017). Psychiatric disorders in adolescents with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Pediatrics, p.e20162241.
Demyttenaere, K., Bruffaerts, R., Posada-Villa, J., Gasquet, I., Kovess, V. L., Bernert, S., . . . Kikkawa, T. (2004). Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. . Jama, 2581-2590.
Gronholm, P. C., Thornicroft, G., Laurens, K. R., & Evans-Lacko, S. (2017). Mental health-related stigma and pathways to care for people at risk of psychotic disorders or experiencing first-episode psychosis: a systematic review. . Psychological medicine, 1867-1879.
McAlpine, D., & Mechanic, D. (2002). Utilization of specialty mental health care among persons with severe mental illness: the roles of demographics, need, insurance, and risk. . Health services research, 277-289.
Pine, D. S., & Cohen, J. A. (2002). Trauma in children and adolescents: Risk and treatment of psychiatric sequelae. . Biological psychiatry, 519-531.
Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Zucker, M., van der Kolk, B., Silva, S., Smith, S., & Blaustein, M. (2017). Survey Evaluates: Complex Trauma Exposure, Outcome, and Intervention Among Children and Adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 433-439.