Management and Organisation Behavior

A Research Essay on Management and Organisation Behavior

Research Essay:

Globalization in modern era is considered to be one of the key strategies for survival for an organization that wants to achieve growth, profitability and sustainability in the long run. The purpose of this research essay is to identify the various effects of globalization on the activities of the various organizations. In the opinion of David Held, the term globalization refers to the fast global interconnection that is deep and takes place on a large scale. It has affected the local, national and the regional business activities (CUTERELA, 2012). By way of it many organizations have achieved the free flow of goods and services between borders and free trade agreements have been possible. Several activities constitute globalization such as the phase model that integrates strategic alliances, affiliates, cooperative contracts and exports. The exporting refers to the sale of goods and services to another country. Strategic alliances can consist of global strategic alliance or joint ventures between two or more countries. The cooperative contracts consist mainly of franchising and licensing and the affiliates consist of the wholly-owned subsidiaries of the parent organization. Therefore, a business might undertake any of the above strategies in order to enter into international business relationships (CUTERELA, 2012).
Resistance to change is a common phenomenon when a business is striving to become a global organization by expanding its products and services to other foreign nations. It calls for change in the organizational strategies some of which might not be encouraging for the existing employees of the business (Hultman, N.D.). This is the reason for many of them resisting such change management strategies and at this critical juncture, it is the responsibility of the managers and supervisors to undertake the role of a prudent leader and implement successful conflict management strategies for ensuring that the dissenting employees are subdued through logic and justification of the needed change management process.

There are 5 ways of handling resistance to change as follows:

Defining the change- The manager should be clear about the change needed and should convey it properly to all the employees.
Determining the causes of resistance- The manager then needs to identify the parties who will be affected by the change and will anticipate the probable resistance they might offer.
Developing the strategy- After the causes of resistance have been identified, the manager should design effective strategies to deal with such resistances.
Implementing the strategy- At this stage the manager must implement the strategy considering two important factors such as the timing and the pacing. Timing refers to the time of implementation of the strategy and pacing refers to the volume of the strategy that will be implemented at any given time.
Evaluating the results of the strategy- Finally, the results of the implemented strategy must be evaluated by the manager for understanding how much effective has been the resistance management strategy (Hultman, N.D.).
The term global business indicates an organization that is engaged in international trade across the globe. The concept of the multinational corporations has emerged over the years those are engaged in global business activities. A multinational organization is the one that consists of operating in at least two nations. But, nowadays it refers to an organization that has business operations in many countries across the globe in order to be considered as a global business concern (Inc, 2017).

The phase of globalization consists of the following stages:

Germinal Stage- It is the first phase of globalization occurring between 15th and the middle of the 18th century. The national communities began to grow and the transnational system of the medieval times began to evaporate. The modern geography began to occur from this phase.
Incipient Stage- This phase occurred between the middle of 18th century till 1870. The change was abrupt towards the concept of homogeneity and the rise of international relations, national and transnational relations and communications began to emerge. Slowly, industrialization was developing (Tejada, 2007).
Take-off Stage- This stage lasted from the 1870s to the 1920s. The phase is marked with incidents such as creation of national societies, generic individuality with a bias towards masculinity and a singular and non-unified idea of the humankind. Global communications improved and global competition began to emerge.
Struggle-for-Hegemony Phase- The duration of this phase was from the middle 1920s till the late 1960s. At this stage disputes and struggles emerged such as the happening of the Second World War. There were conflicting ideas about modernity and then the Cold War happened that led to the development of the concept of Third World. The United Nations was established with the emphasis on national independence (Tejada, 2007).
Uncertainty Stage- This phase continued from the late 1960s to the early 1990s. This era is marked by unprecedented technological and scientific developments such as the incident of the moon landing occurring in the 1960. This era was paved the way for the rise of the Capitalistic economy. Global communications had improved more than ever before and flow of goods and services between nations increased significantly.

The various organizations use the process of Job Specialization for the following advantages:

Enhancing productivity- Specialized skills help in group work which helps in faster production and achievement of least possible errors. This enhances the morale and the productivity of the employees (Hamel, 2017).
Seeking a Job- Workers and employees having specialized knowledge in their domains are preferred by the employers for the purpose of recruitment. Thus, specialization is advantageous for the employees.
Job Security- Specialization offers enhanced skills and knowledge to the employees and therefore an employer cannot replace such skilled workforce easily. Therefore, it offers enhanced job security to the employees.
Considerations- Employers tend to prefer workers with specialized skills and knowledge but the worker or employee needs to possess the general skills and expertise required for the job position also. Therefore, specialized skills should be an addition to the basic required skills for a typical job position (Hamel, 2017).
The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) was developed by Hackman and Oldham in 1975 and is implemented even today for redesigning jobs so that they are not perceived to be monotonous and boring by the employees. The purpose of JCM is to enhance the internal motivation of the employees towards the job by achieving a restructuring of the job design. JCM consists of the phases such as redesigning the task, redesigning the technique and then finally, another redesigning method to offer the best possible job design. JCM contributes to the presence of three ‘Critical Psychological States’ or CPS, namely, the meaningfulness of the work as experienced by the employees, experience of the responsibility of the job outcomes and finally the awareness or knowledge about the actual performance of the work by the employee. This is the way in which JCM helps in enhancing motivation and removing low job satisfaction of employees (Martin, 2017).
Motivation refers to the level of zeal, enthusiasm, creativity and commitment that an employee brings towards his job in an organization. Employees need to be motivated at the workplace in order to ensure their satisfactory performance and desired level of productivity for the organization. Reinforcements for employees are necessary because if the employees are not motivated at workplace their productivity will fall. In this connection many of the employers observe Reinforcement Theory to motivate employees at workplace (Inc, 2017).
The Reinforcement Theory of Motivation has been developed by BF Skinner along with his associates which portrays that the behaviour of an employee can be depicted as a function of its various consequences. 

Steps to control employee behaviours within the workplace:

Positive Reinforcement- This encompasses a positive response from the manager if the employee achieves the desired objective. Reward can be a positive reinforcement if it improves the employee behaviour.
Negative Reinforcement- It consists of rewarding the employee through eradication of a negative or undesirable consequence of his action.
Punishment- It refers to the application of undesirable consequences for the purpose of preventing future undesirable behaviour of the employee. An example is suspension.
Extinction- Here no reinforcements are present for the employees and the probability of undesired behaviour of the employee is reduced. But, in this technique, the employee most certainly loses motivation due to lack of rewards for good work (Management Study Guide, 2018).
Leadership can be defined as the process of motivating a group of individuals for the purpose of achieving some common and shared objectives (Ward, 2017). The Path-Goal Leadership Theory depicts the style or trait of a leader that best suits the employees and the work culture for achieving the organizational goals. The aim of this theory is to enhance employee motivation and achieve organizational productivity. This theory is modelled on Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (1964).

There are four types of leadership behaviour under this theory as follows:

Directive- The leader clearly communicates to the followers regarding what is expected of them. 
Supportive- The leader assumes a concerning and friendly approach in mixing with followers. This form of leadership is effective in psychologically and physically challenging environments. This form of leadership is effective when the subordinates are confused and uncertain with the work environment.
Participative- The leader takes the suggestions of his followers on decision-making functions. This is advantageous if subordinates are effectively trained in skills and they remain involved in their tasks.
Achievement- The leader provides challenging objectives for the followers so that they can provide their best performances in such challenging scenario that depicts their competency. This form of leadership is effective in a highly professional and challenging environment (NWLink, 2013).

The steps of a Control Process are as follows:

Setting the Performance Standards- Here the standards are set for measuring the actual performance.
Measuring Actual Performance- The actual performance is measured by comparing it with the standardized criteria.
Comparing Actual Performance with established Standards- Here the actual performance is compared with the standard to arrive at the deviations.
Analysing the Deviations from Standards- Deviation is inevitable in performances but the management should prioritize on such deviations and try to mitigate them to the extent they want to ensure objectives are attained (Kalpana, n.d.).

There are 3 basic elements of the Control Process as follows:

Setting Standards- Here the standards are set for comparing with expected and actual output.
Comparing- Here, the actual and expected outputs are compared to locate deviations.
Managing Deviations- In this stage the deviations should be controlled in a way that the business objectives are not failed to be achieved.
In the university, the teachers assess the assignments by implementing the same Control Process as discussed earlier. At first the marking criteria are set those are the Standards, followed by Comparing with the assignment as submitted by the students and finally determining the Deviations from the standardized marking criteria, based on which remarks and marks are assigned to the assignments.


CUTERELA, S. (2012) 'Globalization: Definition, Processes and Concepts ', National Defense University; Carol 1, pp. 137-145.
Hamel, G. (2017) The Advantages of Job Specialization, [Online], Available:
Inc (2017) Employee Motivation, [Online], Available:
Inc (2017) Global Business, [Online], Available:
Kalpana, R. (n.d.) Controlling Process in Business Management (5 Steps), [Online], Available:
Management Study Guide (2018) Reinforcement Theory of Motivation, [Online], Available:
Martin (2017) Understanding the Job Characteristics Model (including Job Enrichment), [Online], Available:
NWLink (2013) Path-Goal Leadership Theory, [Online], Available:
Tejada, G. (2007) 'Roland Robertson’s Minimal Phase Model of Globalisation', GLOPP, pp. 1-2.
Ward, S. (2017) Leadership Definition, [Online], Available: 

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