Human Health and Disease Questions

Essay Questions, choose 3 of the questions to answer and each answer is between 250-500 words.
1. Describe the role of the following in protein synthesis - DNA, nucleotides, RNA, ribosomes, rough ER, and Golgi apparatus.
2. List three factors that have contributed to the increase in infectious disease, and name a disease that has been particularly affected by each factor.
3. Compare and contrast osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and osteomyelitis.
4. Huntington’s disease is characterized by a loss of normal inhibition mediated by the basal nuclei. Predict the symptoms you are likely to see with this disease
5. Describe and discuss several common types of heart disease.
6. Name and discuss the diseases involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
7. Individuals experiencing prolonged vomiting lose a lot of stomach juices with the vomitus. Predict the effect this loss will have on the pH of the blood. How will the respiratory system respond to the change in pH?
8. List and discuss six signs of chronic renal failure.
9. Beginning with the first day of menstruation, describe the events of one complete cycle, including the role of the hormones involved.
10. Differentiate among congenital, genetic, and hereditary disorders and give several examples of each.

Answer 1

Role of the following in protein synthesis: 
? DNA: DNA plays a vital role in protein synthesis and to understand the role, it is important to understand the structure of DNA first.  DNA is a double helix structure that has four basic subunits. DNA is built from four subunits namely Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C)  and Guanine (G). Each of these subunits has its own role in the process of protein synthesis. DNA acts as a blueprint and guide the protein's structure to be produced. DNA helps ribosomes understand the order in which amino acids should be placed. Amino acid order is a genetic map that informs cells about the combining process and forms a larger organism. The information is then used by the cells to build components such as protein and RNA. Protein synthesis is the process of creating new protein inside a cell. One strand of the DNA carries that information related to the amino acid synthesis that is carried by mRNA to the ribosome for protein synthesis (wiseGEEK, 2016).
? Nucleotides: Nucleotides provides the monomer for the genetic information in the DNA and RNA that is utilized for the protein synthesis later.
? RNA: Three types of RNA perform different functions in Protein synthesis. mRNA carries the genetic information required for protein synthesis and it is decoded by tRNA. Finally, rRNA (Lodish et al., 2000) helps in the formation of ribosomes that consequently are the powerhouse of protein synthesis inside a cell. The translation is the process that is used to perform the end to end synthesis process.
? Ribosomes: Ribosomes are responsible for bringing mRNA and tRNA together and carries out the process of translation for the protein synthesis process. 
? Rough ER: It provides a surface where ribosomes can be suited and carry out protein synthesis. Moreover, it transfers the protein to the Golgi apparatus.
? Golgi apparatus: This helps in the final stage of protein synthesis. It adds carbohydrates to complete the protein synthesis process.

Answer 2

The table below compares and contrasts osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and osteomyelitis.
Osteoporosis     Osteomalacia     Osteomyelitis

Osteoporosis is the disease of bones that is responsible for the bone degeneration of the bone constructed already and makes them brittle.
Breaking of old bones faster than the creation of new ones is termed as Osteoporosis(William C. Shiel Jr., 2016). 


Symptoms are frequent fractures and loss of height. 


Treatment of Osteoporosis is done using the medicines including raloxifene and calcitonin. These medications can slow down bone deterioration. 


Plenty of intake of calcium and vitamin D can prevent the disease. Moreover, a healthy diet can also help in prevention.

Osteomalacia the disease of bones that is responsible for bone softness. Due to abnormality in the bone formation.  Calcium and phosphate deficiency and inadequate level of vitamin D can cause this problem(Updated by Gordon A. Starkebaum, 2016).


Osteomalacia can also lead to weakness in the muscles of arms and legs. 


Proper sunlight and good dietary products can help in curing the problem.

 

Prevention of Osteomalacia is possible with a good exposure to sunlight that keeps a check on Vitamin D.
 

Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis is the bone infection that can spread through infection in the bloodstream and injured tissues. 


Osteomyelitis has a different impact on children and adults. In children, long bones are affected. In adults, the spine can be affected (Nhs.uk, 2016). 


The treatment is a 4 to the 6-week long process in which the dead part of the bone is removed and followed by strong antibiotics for a period of five to six weeks (Nhs.uk, 2016). 


Cleaning the wound with clean water can prevent the chances of getting the infection. There are also a few medications that heal the problem

Answer 3

There are different type of heart diseases and a few are described below:
Rheumatic heart disease: This is caused by the rheumatic fever that causes damage to the valves of the heart.  Streptococcal bacteria are responsible for Rheumatic heart disease.  
Valvular heart disease: It is the heart condition in which the heart doesn’t pump the blood in the right direction. The causes for this disease can be narrow valves, prolapse or leak. Rheumatic fever can cause damage to the valves or connective tissue disorder is another cause. Moreover, there is certain medications that are taken by cancer patients can also cause damage to valves (World-heart-federation.org, 2016). 
Aneurysm: It is characterized by the weakness in the blood vessel or a bulge.  This can be a life-threatening situation as bulge keeps on increasing in size with time. This commonly occurs in the abdominal aorta and arteries at the brain’s base. 
Atherosclerosis: Due to the collection of fatty deposits in the walls of arteries can make them thick and restricts the blood flow. There is no particular site for blockage and it can be a problem throughout the body. This can take years to develop but leads to grave consequences such as heart attack and stroke(World-heart-federation.org, 2016). 
High blood pressure (hypertension): It is a common problem with many people around the world and it is caused by the high pressure of blood. It can be responsible for heart failure or stroke. 
 

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References

wiseGEEK. (2016). What Is the Role of DNA in Protein Synthesis? (with pictures). [online] Available at: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-role-of-dna-in-protein-synthesis.htm [Accessed 7 May 2016].
Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D. and Darnell, J. (2000). The Three Roles of RNA in Protein Synthesis. W. H. Freeman. [online] Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21603/ [Accessed 7 May 2016].
Nhs.uk. (2016). Osteomyelitis - Prevention - NHS Choices. [online] Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/osteomyelitis/pages/prevention.aspx [Accessed 7 May 2016].
World-heart-federation.org. (2016). Different heart diseases | World Heart Federation. [online] Available at: http://www.world-heart-federation.org/cardiovascular-health/heart-disease/different-heart-diseases/#c419 [Accessed 7 May 2016].
Updated by: Gordon A. Starkebaum, a. (2016). Osteomalacia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. [online] Nlm.nih.gov. Available at: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000376.htm [Accessed 7 May 2016].
William C. Shiel Jr., F. (2016). Osteoporosis: Get Facts on Diet, Treatment, and Guidelines. [online] MedicineNet. Available at: http://www.medicinenet.com/osteoporosis/article.htm [Accessed 7 May 2016].

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