Human Behavior in Organizationa


Please answer ALL 3 questions. All questions carry equal
marks. Do not write over 2000 words for the entire
1. Transactional and transformational leadership: Critically assess these leadership
styles and comment on which may be more superior.
2. What do you think are the most important attributes that a leader should possess?
Why in your experience you believe this? Articulate the implications of these
attributes on leadership development.
3. When the leader is effective, what are the results? What is the profile of a
high performance team?

Human Behavior in Organization

1. Transactional and transformational leadership: Critically assess these leadership styles and comment on which may be more superior.

There are several different leadership styles that are suitable for several different situations. But it would be erroneous to consider a single leadership style to be fitting to the needs and wants of every organizational situation. It should be noted that among the different types of leadership model, the transaction and transformational leadership model deserve special mention. This is particularly because both the leadership styles have the potential to bring about positive changes that can impact positively on the overall growth of an organization and its members (Church, 2012). Transactional leadership is result oriented and it conforms to the existing structure of an organization. In this type of leadership style success is measured according to the organization’s system of rewards and penalties (Spahr, 2016). Having positions of responsibility and formal authority, transactional leaders often are observed to be maintaining routine by managing individual performance and facilitating group performance (Spahr, 2016). The previously defined requirements act as the basis of performance for such leaders and their followers and transactional leaders are more prone to set the criteria for their followers rather than giving them an environment where innovation and creativity can be nurtured independently. For transactional leaders, performance reviews are the best and the most common way to judge the followers’/employees’ performance. It must be noted that “Transactional or managerial leaders work bets with employees who know their jobs and are motivated by the reward-penalty system. The status quo of an organization is maintained through transactional leadership” (Spahr, 2016). One must take into account the fact that in the 20th century a German sociologist, Max Weber, put much emphasis on the study of leadership styles, and it was he who categorized leadership styles into three types, viz. traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal, or bureaucratic (Spahr, 2016). The rational-legal leadership that was later to be known as transactional leadership was actually extensively explained and discussed by Weber and for him, transactional leadership denotes the exercise of control on the basis of one’s knowledge (Spahr, 2016). The transactional leadership model is based on the theory that managers give employees something they want in exchange for obtaining something they actually want (Spahr, 2016). The theory posits that “workers are not self-motivated and require structure, instruction and monitoring in order to complete tasks correctly and on time” (Spahr, 2016). Moreover, it must be noted that there are several dimensions of transactional leadership. It is about contingent reward constituted of the process of setting expectations and rewarding employees for accomplishing the objectives. It is a style of passive management by exception, where a manger seldom interferes with the workflow and he/she does so only if an issue arise (Spahr, 2016). Transactional leadership is also an active management style where management is done by exception in which managers have the potential to anticipate problems, monitor progress and take steps to rectify some errors and introduce corrective measures (Spahr, 2016).
Transformational leadership, on the other hand, though often confused with transactional leadership, is a unique and different model of leadership style in which the leaders inspires the followers to accomplish and attain unexpected and remarkable results. It is a form of leadership that can be considered as an abode of innovation and creativity. Transformational leadership style is about giving the employees/followers the autonomy over specific jobs and the authority to make decisions once they have got proper training in making the decision (Spahr, 2015). Inspiration is often a source of authority for a transformational leader. Transformational leaders “raise the well-being and motivation level of a group through excellent rapport. They are also good at conflict resolution” (Spahr, 2015). It must be noted that being quiet is often the nature of transformational leaders and they are the ones that lead by example (Spahr, 2015). The transformational leaders are inclined towards using rapport, inspiration and empathy to engage the followers in the course of the accomplishing the organizational objectives and goals. Transformational leaders are known for their courage, confidence and for their willingness to make sacrifice to pave the way for the obtainment of the greater good (Spahr, 2015). First coined by sociologist James V. Downtown, transformational leadership seek to change existing thoughts, techniques and goals for bettering the result and for attaining the greater good (Spahr, 2015). The leaders who basically focus on the essential needs of the followers are often the transformational leaders. Transformational leaders work hard to change the system and they are quite apt at solving challenges “by finding experiences that show that old patterns do not fit or work” (Spahr, 2015). They are eager to know that has to be changed and their knowledge and wisdom are often the basis of the increase in capability and capacity of their team members. Transformational leaders are well-organized (“Transformational Leadership”, n.d.) and they expect their followers to be creative because they themselves are team-oriented and expect that their followers will work collaboratively for creating the best possible outcomes. It has often been observed that transformational leaders are respected and in reciprocation they also give respect to their followers. Sometimes acting as the coach, transformational leaders provide training and motivation to the team members for attaining the desired goals. Transformational leaders are responsible and accountable but they also expect their followers to be the same. Quite interestingly, transformational leader “Engenders respect through rapport and personal influence” (Spahr, 2015).
There are certain differences between transactional and transformational leadership models. While transactional leaders work within the system, transformational leaders work toward changing the system (Spahr, 2015). Transactional leaders bring about inception of problem solving by fitting experiences to a known pattern whereas transformational leaders strive for solving challenges by finding experiences “that show that depicts the truth that sometimes old patterns do not fit for a certain situation (Spahr, 2015). Transactional leadership style is more interested in embracing the step-by-step approach whereas transformational leadership style wants to know what actually has to be changed (Spahr, 2015). Moreover, if transactional leaders minimize variation of the organization, transformational leaders are known for maximizing their teams’ capacity and capability (Spahr, 2015). But if judged from an overall perspective it can be seen that transformational leadership is a bit better than transactional leadership. Transformational leadership is superior than transactional leadership because transformational leaders have individualized consideration for followers and they pay attention to and meet the needs of their followers. Moreover, transformational leaders give scope to stimulate ideas and creativity from followers and such leaders are more willing at creating a safe environment that is quite poised to challenge the status quo. Furthermore, transformational leaders are visionary leaders and their vision inspires and motivates followers in terms of achieving important objectives. Finally, it must be said that transformational leaders are role models and they lead by example. They are role models for their followers and they are great motivators, enhancing employee morale and employee engagement.

2. What do you think are the most important attributes that a leader should possess? Why in your experience you believe this? Articulate the implications of these attributes on leadership development.

There are several attributes that a leader should possess to make the leadership style an effective one. Primarily, a leader should be a role model. She must live values and lead by example and she must demonstrate integrity and obtain support from followers (Kotelnikov, n.d.). A good leader often is charismatic and energized and she keeps on learning (Kotelnikov, n.d.). A good leader is also an inspirer. She is always able to create an inspiring vision and is quite capable of setting the right direction for the followers (Kotelnikov, n.d.). A good leader directs emotions and has the capacity of energizing and motivating people (Kotelnikov, n.d.). As an inspirer, a leader encourages risk-taking and experimentation (Kotelnikov, n.d.). A good leader is also an enabler. She helps her followers to grow and develop and she empowers her followers. A good leader is capable of building strong teams and collaborative relationships (Kotelnikov, n.d.). She leverage diversity and build synergies (Kotelnikov, n.d.). Moreover, a good leader is an achiever. She focuses on results and tries to remain persistent (Kotelnikov, n.d.). A good leader is able to discover and pursue opportunities and is always capable of leading change and has the potential to learn from feedback (Kotelnikov, n.d.). I have gained experience that has helped me in believing in the fact that a good leader should possess the aforesaid attributes. Such attributes are effective in terms of mitigating problems and paving the way for organizational growth and development. I also believe that for encouraging growth and development a leader must have clarity. A good leader is clear and concise every time and this “gives others the opportunity to digest their goals and decide whether or not they will support their cause” (Economy, 2017). My experience says that decisiveness is yet another great quality of a leader. Whenever a good leader makes a decision, she tries to commit to it. A good leader shows great consistency with her decisions and she rarely back out of change her mind (Economy, 2017). The attribute of being a role model has a positive implication on the effectiveness of a leader. Being a role model it becomes easier for the leader to encourage and motivate the followers (Pereira, 2012). The enabling attribute of a good leader also renders positive implications on her role as a leader. It must always be noted that a leader who is prepared to enable the followers to accomplish the goals and objectives is a leader who is always revered and exemplified. Moreover, a good leader must be a great learner and this has its own implication. Whenever a leader shows the inclination to learn, the followers also get motivated to learn new things, and this learning process paves the way for the growth and development of a learning organization (Knowledge Management Tools, 2018).

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3. When the leader is effective, what are the results? What is the profile of a high performance team?

An effective leader is an asset to the organization. When a leader is effective, the efficacy of the organization increases and the chance of its growth and development increases manifold. It is noteworthy that “Good leadership give everyone in the company the confidence that they are under the guidance of someone who is credible and knowledgeable. Leadership inspires people to try new concepts and venture into unknown territories that will develop both their personal and professional skills” (Gray, 2015). If a leader is effective then the chances for an organization to gain the competitive edge increases to a large extent. Employees get motivated and their morale becomes higher (Heathfield, 2017). An effective leader improves the productivity of the workforce and she improves the ability of employees to succeed under pressure (Rapid Boost, 2013). Effective leadership results in increased emotional intelligence and “Improved charisma and seriousness in business operations” (Rapid Boost, 2013). The confidence within the team is increased eventually as a result of effective leadership. Moreover, it has been observed that as an outcome of effective leadership the listening and communication skills improve throughout the organization in a thorough manner. Effective leadership also has the potential to uphold and manage diversity within an organization. Furthermore, it has been observed that effective leadership paves the way for the ushering of innovation and creativity in operations and in decision-making. Also, one must take into account the fact that effective leadership helps in forming a dependable, reliable and competent workforce (Rapid Boost, 2013).
High performance team has its own profile that is quite distinguishable from mediocre teams. In high performance teams the team members have deep trust in each other and in the team’s overall purpose and objective and there is always an air of openness that support transparent communication (Wiese & Ricci, 2016). Moreover, in a high profile team, all the team members work toward accomplishing the same goals and objectives and “Team members are clear on how to work together and how to accomplish tasks” (Wiese & Ricci, 2016). In a high performance team everyone is capable of aligning their own goals and objectives with the goals and objectives of the organization. A relaxed and informal atmosphere within high performance team paves the way for increase in team cohesion and collaboration. Another important feature of a high performance team is that, every team member has the opportunity to engage in extensive discussion and everyone gets a chance to contribute (including the introverts) (Wiese & Ricci, 2016).


Church, D.M. (2012). Leadership Style and Organizational Growth: A Correlational Study. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
Economy, P. (2017). The 5 Essential Qualities of a Great Leader. Inc. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
Gray, A. (2015). The Impact of Good Leadership. About Leaders. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
Heathfield, S.M. (2017). Tips for the Leader About Employee Motivation. The Balance. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
Knowledge Management Tools (2018). Leadership and “The Learning Organization”. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
Kotelnikov, V. (n.d.). Leadership Attributes. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
Pereira, E. (2012). The Role Model Effect: Women Leaders Key To Inspiring Next Generation. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
Rapid Boost (2013). Benefits of Good Leadership In Business and Role of Good Leadership in Business Success. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
Spahr, P. (2015). What is Transformational Leadership? How New Ideas Produce Impressive Results. St. Thomas University Online. Retrieved January 29, 2018, from
Spahr, P. (2016). What is Transactional Leadership? How Structure Leads to Results. St. Thomas University Online. Retrieved January 29, 2018, from
Transformational Leadership (n.d.). Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
Wiese, C., & Ricci, R. (2016). 10 Characteristics of High-Performing Teams. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from

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