classrooms, during assemblies, and at other school events. But the challenge is not
simply moral literacy—in fact, research indicates that most students, like my daughter’s
friends, know values such as honesty and respect by the time they are five or six years
old. Because they know these values, many children—especially adolescents—feel
patronized by lectures about values. And some children, as the question asked by my
daughter’s friend suggests, become nimble at simply parroting back what adults want
to hear.” - an excerpt from the Harvard Education Letter
You as a researcher is designing a study to see if moral literacy in our schools to better
moral development. For your study on moral development see if you can design an
intervention study that qualifies as a true experiment. Use levels of moral literacy as the
dependent variable. The goal of the intervention is to increase levels of moral literacy.
2.1. Develop an intervention that you could test in the experiment. The intervention has
to be something that you control and that you think will have an impact on
individual levels of moral literacy for a specific population. Start by getting your
conceptual model which would answer questions such as – what factors do you
think impact levels of moral literacy? Which of these factors can you, the
2.2. How would you recruit participants from the target population? How would you
assign them to the experimental group and the control group?
2.3. What measurements will you need to make? When will you make these
measurements (relative to the treatment)? How will you make these measurements
(e.g. survey, observation)?
Generational Differences of Personal Values of Business Students
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1. The article “Generational Differences of Personal Values of Business Students” by Don E. Giacomino, Jill Brown, and Michael D. Akers seeks to address the values and value systems of business students coming from a private mid-western university. The research problem that is being addressed uses the Rokeach Value Survey and the Musser and Orke Typology of Personal Values. The research paper then compares their results with the 1990s and early 2000 and provides some insights to the generational differences. The article is regarding the differences in values and the value system of various business students as these students represent the future leaders of the organizations. The thesis statement focusses on the personal values of the students, and how these personal values influence the behavior of these students, further determining the direction of their businesses and the society, hence indicating the pressing need for these values. The research paper discusses the ethical issues and reflects critically upon the values needed in the businesses administration and the corporate society. The research area in ethical values and related area develops the understanding of the skills and values and value system that are necessary for anticipating the future consequences of future leaders of corporate society. The paper provides insight into the personal value systems of future young entrepreneurs. The value was classified as terminal and instrumental (ends and means), where the terminal values group included Equality, Family Security, Freedom, Mature Love, National Security, Social Recognition, True Friendship, A World at Peace and A World of Beauty. The values that were included in the moral instrumental set are mentioned as given: Broadminded, Forgiving, Helpful, Honest, Loving, Loyal, Obedient, Polite and Responsible. The main objective of this study is the examination of these values and value systems using Rokeach value survey and to compare them with the generation differences. This was done by comparing the results with the 1998 Giacomino and Akers survey type. From 1998 to 2010, the instrumental qualities order did not change significantly except the Logical, which further expanded in significance by seven spots. A few terminal qualities, in any case, were positioned much contrastingly in 1998 than they were in 2010.
2. The authors make use of various previous researchers to establish the methodological approach used in the research paper. Although, there isn’t research in the traditional sense for this article, but the author does include many examples of work written by those who have written on this subject in the past. Don E. Giacomino et al. cite individuals like Fagenson, Singhapakdi, and Vitell, Finnegan, Akers and Giacomino, Cohen et al., etc. All these are good and well-known examples along with the authors, and I believe that all these instances add a great deal credibility to the research paper as a whole, and it is a helpful aspect in enhancing the various types of methodological approaches in the finest way in order to traditionally sense the article with a well-versed statements. Their statements help to contribute to the complete understanding of the research topic and the reasoning to establish the problem statement. Further, the author compared the results with the Giacomino and Akers (1998) study and Eaton and Giacomino (2000) study for a better understanding and for the improvement in one’s personality and also for giving better insights to the readers regarding the values and the generation differences where the comparison of generation X and generation Y is also mentioned.
3. The research paper uses the personal value survey instrument implemented by Rokeach (1973) and Musser and Orke (1992) and therefore developed a methodology that can be used to classify people by their value type. Moreover, it helps in increasing the modest classification of various types of instruments regarding the value, etiquettes, performance, status, experience, etc. Therefore, strategies used for a gathering of the information for this article were unmistakably clarified. The instruments and improvement were clarified, and the reliability coefficients of every conceivable test were given. The utilized of a population was sufficient. Therefore, the strategies will surely help in enhancing the article with the means of clarification. The thesis statement focusses on the personal values of the students, and how these personal values influence the behavior of these students, further determining the direction of their businesses and the society, hence indicating the pressing need for these values. The research paper discusses the ethical issues and reflects critically upon the values needed in the businesses administration and the corporate society which further makes an impact on the culture regarding the corporate and society rules and regulations. To do that, the research design provides the reliable and appropriate information when compared to the thesis statement and being descriptive in nature it provides a valuable tool for assessing the trends and opinions regarding the values and value systems. The designing further makes an effective and efficient means of values and ethical issues with the whole new proper way of enhancing the working regarding the corporate and the society. The research design intendeds to cover the basics of designing as well as implementing the research study.
4. The research subject is observed in a natural environment where the normal values of the future entrepreneurs and managers were assessed with an overview in regard with covering all aspects of environmental concerns. The survey, while gives an analyzable data, influences the normal behavior of the subject giving it a more suitable definition. The research paper initially mentions the similar work performed by the likes of Burdett (1998, 27), Finegan (1994, 747), Fritzsche (1995, 909), which indicated to the corporate employees and their personal values and value system that were aligned with the culture at their workplaces and their behavior more effectively. Using the survey, various values add value systems were evaluated in these students and the data was analyzed thoroughly with the proper means of detailed value system and the values covering all the aspects regarding the future functioning of the individual. Further comparison between their survey methodologies and the 1998 Giacomino and Akers survey types further provide valuable point to the study giving insight on the idea of the worth-testing hypotheses.
In addition, research (Bruno and Lay, 2008, Connor and Becker, 2003, Fritzsche, 1995, Fritzsche and Oz, 2007, Finegan, 1994, and Character et. Al, 2009) supports the premise that one’s personal values influence behavior, status, etiquettes, experience, etc. including managerial and corporate strategy decisions. Because the personal values of these students will influence their behavior and determine the direction of businesses and other organizations in our society, it is useful to learn more about their values as it is a major concern in the eyes of the society which reflect the one’s personality, behavior, etiquettes, manners, status, etc. Therefore, this study uses the Rokeach Values Survey (RVS) (1992) to understand better the personal values of University business majors.
Therefore, the research design has provided the structure to the given research work. It provides guidance with the proper means of functioning and systematizes the results and findings. Further, the chosen methodology has also impacted the results and outcomes.
5. The research design has reliability as the research methodology has produced consistent results in instrumental values. It was seen that the results in the order of the instrumental values did not change drastically apart from the Logical value which showed that there value increased in important that too by seven spots. However, the results showed variance in the several terminal values that were ranked differently in 1998 when compared to the values of 2010. Many values depicted an increase or decrease of around four spots and more.
Equality likewise increased in value system in significance from 1998 to 2010, climbing eight spots on the rundown. Greenwood et. al. (2008) find that individuals from Generation Y yearning to be treated with equality with others in the working environment and frequently need promotions and responsibility more rapidly than past eras. These research paper outcomes demonstrate this pattern much more emphatically. The values like Pleasure, inner harmony, social recognition, freedom and mature love changed significantly when compared to the previous studies along with the valid reason alongside their comparison with the previous studies.
This study has two inborn restrictions. To start with, the sample was not arbitrarily chosen. All of the student members were enrolled in the researchers? classes. Further, all the selected students went to a mid-western, faith-based, private college with around 12,000 enrollments. Accordingly, the sample may not be illustrative of all bookkeeping and/or financial majors. This indicates that the research study has major internal validity and less external validity.
6. The design provides a more comprehensive picture of every aspect of this research study covering all the aspects which help in enhancing the design more appropriately and in the finest way of study. It must be noted that the findings of this study have restricted application to different settings, and consequently one can't create sayings that are broadly material to different circumstances. What this study yields, in any case, are interesting bits of knowledge into proposed ranges for further research, particularly those utilizing subjective outlines as a premise for creating understanding and increasing comprehension into values and value systems in business majors.
A decent research study should be novel. This implies there will be some new aspects of the research study that has not been examined and analyzed before. The study itself states that this calculation of values and value system has been done by many research papers and therefore does not present a new aspect as such. In any case, this doesn't imply that one ought to abstain from reproducing the past examination. Indeed, not just is replication a decent approach to get an examination philosophy; it is the means by which one can advance their knowledge. While duplicating the past studies, it is best to include or change few aspects so as to enhance the novelty of the research study. The writers can attempt to develop new perspectives be it hypothetical or theoretical for testing and refining their area of study with the broader terms of enhancing the research in a more thorough manner.
7. The research paper introduced us two new research methodology namely Rokeach Values Survey (1973), Musser and Orke (1992). As, Posner and Schmidt (1987, 341) define values as-
“General standards by which we formulate attitudes and beliefs and according to which we behave."
These are the two classification systems by values. These systems consist of two set of values namely the terminal values and instrumental values. Musser and Orks have indicated that individuals possessing the varying value types behave differently and are termed as virtuous advocates or the virtue leaders, Independent Maximizers, Honorable Egoists and Effective Crusaders. These two different methodologies were beneficial in studying the values and values systems of students in various departments and helped in determining whether their values were apt within their organizations. These methods were further helpful in making out the difference between the Generation X and Generation Y and their values.
Tuana (2007) defined moral literacy as “the skills and knowledge specific to making ethical choices in life are learned capabilities requiring skills in which individuals can be more or less competent” (p. 365) Moral literacy is not a naturally-gained process, but it is gained with the effort to develop the right skills (Zdenek & Schochor, 2007).
The advancement of moral character has always been the subject of philosophical and mental examination since Aristotle guessed three levels of moral character improvement: an ethics of fear, an ethics of wisdom and an ethics of shame (Kraut, 2001).
Gordon and Heincke (2013) proposed that one of the noteworthy abilities a twenty-first century learner ought to have is that of good thinking. There is a critical need felt in today's instructive framework to cultivate moral thinking capacities among youth to prepare them for the citizenship of the twenty-first century (Halstead and Pike, 2006). Henceforth, to develop successful good thinking aptitudes amongst the twenty-first century understudies, teachers need a centered and a comprehensive methodology. Depending on a solitary subject or course on good training or morals to teach ethically educated people would just mean setting them up for disappointment (Hersh and Schneider, 2005). Late studies recommend that there is a broad distinction in the real direct of young people and their reported moral qualities (Report Card on the Ethics of American youth, 2012). To lessen this distinction, teachers need to give careful consideration to the ethical thinking of their understudies and the elements that influence their ethical thinking. Doorman (2013) underlines the hugeness of good instruction in lives of youths, as she trusts that it assumes a key part in their ethical personality development. Given the significance of teaching twenty-first century teenagers with good thinking capacities, this study researches the elements impacting the ethical thinking capacities of twenty-first century immature learners.
The following model given below determines the various components of moral literacy. Keeping Use levels of moral literacy as the dependent variable and the given below components as the independent variables, an intervention study has been developed. These components will be beneficial and can be controlled easily and can have an an impact on individual levels of moral literacy.
The study can be studied in accordance with the Kohlberg’s model stating that people in all culture follow similar stages towards moral development as mentioned below.
For conduction of this study, a Religious Education Class of strength of 20 students was selected where the hostel- students aged between 13-15 years. The students were taught a curriculum that focused mainly on the ethics and moral values. This intervention study carried out for two months. These students were not allowed to leave the school premises and their behavior and implications of the moral values were studied regularly. Whereas, a group of students living with their parent and non-hostel residents were also selected. These students were also taught the same syllabus but were allowed to interact with their parents so as to share the lessons to them and to take their views on the topic taught to them. The parent of this lot were also contacted to impart their support to the study. This way the study differentiated among the student who learned on their own from the students who had their parents with them to guide them through. Thus the parent’s guidance was taken as the independent variable.
The students were subjected to the same study for two months and were taught the curriculum thoroughly. After two months, these students underwent various procedures so as to study the outcome of the project. These students were taught the various components of the moral literacy that are presented above. This helped to enhance their moral literacy so as to help them imbibe that in their behavior and manners instead of nimbling at simply parroting back from what they had been taught by their parents.
The measurements of the study was done in various phases:
PHASE 1: Pilot Study
The students were interviewed one-on-one and were presented with various stories and were asked to recite the moral of the story told to them without any guidance from anyone. This helped to gain an insight to their mind and their understanding of the subject and the ethical science. This phase was performed by giving no assistance to the child so as not to enforce anyone’s judgments onto their views and their understanding of the moral studies.
PHASE 2: Data Gathering
The students were then told a dilemma (given below in the appendices) and were then asked to discuss their views on that dilemma and on the basis of their observation. The dilemma basically dealt with saving of a precious life versus breaking of a judicial law.
“In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $400 for the radium and charged $4,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it.” So having tried every legal means, Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife” (ibid, pp. 82-83).
PHASE 3: Measurement
The data that was gathered in the phase 2 was then converted into the score of the students via considerable thought given on the judgments and calculations. This was done via Measurement of Moral Judgment, Volume II: Standard Issue Scoring Manual” by Colby and Kohlberg (1987). The students were then presented with a score sheet where every student was given scores on various criteria.
When the score sheet was obtained, each and every response of the child was analyzed and the comparison between the students with parental guidance and without parental guidance were made. These dimensions acted like a lens for scrutinizing the moral literacy of the case students selected. This helped to differentiate between the students on the basis of various factors that affect the moral literacy of the children.
Tuana, N. (2007). Conceptualizing moral literacy. Journal of Educational Administration, 45
Zdenek, B., & Schochor, D. (2007). Developing moral literacy in the classroom. Journal of Educational Administration, 45 (4),514-53.
Gordon, E. W., & Heincke, P. (2013). To assess, to teach, to learn: A vision for the future of assessment : technical report. Retrieved from Gordon Commission on the Future of Assessment in Education (U.S.): http://www.gordoncommission.org/rsc/pdfs/gordon_commission_technical_report.pdf
Halstead, J. M., & Pike, M. A. (2006). Citizenship and moral education: values in action. New York: Routledge.
Porter, T. J. (2013). Moral and political identity and civic involvement in adolescents. Journal of Moral Education, 239-255. Report Card on the Ethics of American youth. (2012). Retrieved from Josephson Institute Center for Youth Ethics: http://charactercounts.org/pdf/reportcard/2012/ReportCard-2012- DataTables.pdf
Kohlberg, L., Gibbs, J., & Lieberman, M. (1987). A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment in U.S. Males. In A. Colby, A. Abrahami, & L. Kohlberg, The measurement of moral judgment vol. 1, Theoretical foundations and research validation (pp. 77-118). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.