Alcohol and drugs are also major contributors towards domestic violence. Under the influence of alcohol, a person is not able to control his anger or rage. He does understand much about the situation. If he has witnessed domestic violence before then he is likely to do the same at his home. The person who is into drugs does not value his own life or others life. He is also likely to cause harm not only on the domestic level bit also at a social level (Tomita, 2012).
Age group also plays an important role. As per a study, teenage is most victimising in domestic violence. The age group from 13-19 years are the most venerable. Although the incidents among girls are higher than boys, they can fell prey to domestic violence due to a strained relationship between their parents (Straus et al, 1990). It can be from both the parents and either of the parents.
Socio-economic status also comes in play. Most commonly it is reported that in low socio-economic groups domestic violence is found more. The wealthier women are less subjected to domestic violence. Women who are independent, earning are less likely to be subjected to domestic violence (Barnett et al, 2005). People often indulged in domestic violence have a criminal history also. They have their records with local jails . They mostly have been imprisoned and have been in jail for some duration. They have been frequently involved in antisocial activities.
People who don’t have an income or have a very low income are often depressed, angry and intolerant. They tend to vent their frustration out on their partner in form of domestic violence. Also, people who are divorced or separated indulge in domestic violence. In this case, people become lonely they might have dependents on them. Loneliness also becomes a reason for depression and frustration (Levinson, 1989). Also nowadays in the case of early marriage, the couple is not financially stable. They jump into the decision of marriage. They do not think of the future. This causes many hurdles in settling down in life. The couple might not get financially settled the way they wish to. Early marriage also causes early pregnancy so the burden on the family rises further. Hence domestic violence becomes more common. A person who is suffering from the psychosomatic disorder is also likely to do domestic violence. In this, the underlying disease could be depression. This does not allow the person to be generally happy, the person will always be sad and gloomy or he may have bipolar disorder. In which the mood swings are very extreme (Straus and Gelles, 1986). The person is not able to control his anger. Sometimes he will be very depressed and sometimes very angry. Depending on this he might follow the path of domestic violence. Domestic violence is most importantly on female partner and the children.
Domestic violence can cause serious effect on the mind, body and spirit. Chronic exposure to domestic violence can have a serious impact on the mental health. There can be stress and fear resulting domestic violence. Domestic violence affects a person’s thoughts and behaviour. It can lead to mental disability if someone is tortured for long. It can cause increased level of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Also, depression symptoms are commonly observed. Posttraumatic stress disorder is generally due to after a mental trauma. In these, people show symptoms like nightmares, anxiety about that particular event. They show a lack cope with it for some time (Black et al, 2011). It can get better if the environment and situation get better but if the act of violence continue then things might go worse.
Depression is the most common feeling observed in domestic violence. It is a feeling of sadness and hopelessness. The person loses interest in everything. There is a loss of energy, happiness and things the person used to enjoy earlier. In depression cases, people may have suicidal thoughts.
Domestic violence also causes physical injury. Initially, people try to cover these injuries to avoid being questioned by others. Someone might be afraid to speak about it public. As they think that there will be at a greater risk of being abused. Domestic violence affects a person’s overall health. There are common physical effects of domestic violence which can be noticed , they are fatigue. The victim can have a chronic state of fatigue and tiredness. There can be severe muscle tension due to physical injuries. Due to the chronic fear and trauma symptoms like chronic shaking develops (Ramsay et al, 2009). There is also a severe alteration in eating and sleeping patterns. The stress suppresses the hunger response. Due to stress and anxiety, the sleep patterns are also changed.
Domestic violence directly impacts children. They grow up in an environment that is unpredictable. For them, the environment is always dominated by fear. This causes significant emotional and psychological trauma. Instead of growing up in an emotionally secure, caring and happy environment these children grow in a state of the environment which is unprintable. The environment is always constantly subjected to fear, grief and sadness. Generally, in this situation the children see their father abusing mother . They see their mother being threatened and tortured. They mostly overhear the conflict noises and later on they find their mother injured as the act of traumatisation. These children are most likely to develop the behavioural disorder and psychosomatic disorders. There upbringing is significantly affected (Campbell, 2007). They don’t turn out to be very good performers in their schools as they always see violence in their family. The environment which promotes proper education is never present. These children end up being less educated and may end up in a miserable future. Also, there can be situations where father manipulates the children to abuse the mother. These children learn all these from their childhood and most likely to practice it once get married or have a relationship. There are chances that children might get caught in the middle of the assault. This can be due to their wish to stop the assault or may by accident. In this case, children have chances of getting hurt. Also, these children do not develop a proper social behaviour (Tomita, 2012). As they are not able to focus on studies or do their education in a proper manner they can deviate towards crime at a young age and end up in jails A proper guidance from parents are very much necessary at every stage of childhood. But in the case of guidance is generally missing and children are prone to choose the negative pathways.
Domestic violence not only has an effect on our family but also on the entire community. They are associated with severe mental disorders. This requires extensive medical attention to deal with. It is very unfortunate that violence against women is a major health concern. It contributes to many deaths worldwide. It can cause physical and mental impairment for the lifetime. The long-term effect on a child of domestic violence can be destructive behaviour, anger and difficulty in trusting people. In domestic violence, the victim has to quit the jobs in many situations due to absenteeism or result of violence (Barnett et al, 2005). There can be many reasons for which the victims have frequent absenteeism. One of them can be injuries other may be due to frequent inference by the law or some proceeding at the court. Continuity of employment becomes very difficult with this situation. Victims may avoid coming to work to avoid domestic violence.
There are many ways in which we can approach domestic violence. Firstly community approach is required. There has to be increased public attention. In this case, we need to identify the victim and evaluate the options as per the circumstances. The first requirement is the treatment of the victim for various physical and mental traumas. Once the victim is identified then treatment is required at every level. Mental trauma might take many years to heal. The non-profit organisations can directly involve. They can deal with women on case to case basis. The people surrounding the victim need to be aware. In crises situation, quick response is required to prevent irreversible damages (Levinson, 1989). They should be education about the 24 hours hotline numbers in case of emergency. These numbers encourage the women to fight against violence and raise a voice against it. She can be rescued immediately in a crises situation. There is also a requirement for counselling, legal and medical advice. Counselling improves the chances of the individual to cope with the situation also these individuals become socially isolated. Counselling will help them to come back to the society and increase their self-esteem and confidence. Also, victims need legal advice, knowledge and information. As in these cases, many time separations are required. Legal help will guide them through this. Also, they need support in establishing their independence, housing and jobs. A well-developed network is required to ensure the maximum participation of women so that more and more women can come out of domestic violence. There is a need for a campaign, public presentations so that awareness regarding domestic violence can be spread (Wallace and Roberson, 2015). The victims should not feel left alone. They should be aware of the options of coming out of domestic violence and improve their life. In many cases, children are also involved. In this, it is required only to rescue the women but also rehabilitation of the women. The care of the children is also necessary. They have either witnessed domestic violence or have been involved in it. In both the case, they have physical and mental trauma. Counselling will help them coping and learn about safety (Finkenauer et al, 2015). Also they can also approach the emergency numbers when in a crisis. The non-profit organisation can provide children counselling and motivation for a bright future and women to seek employment.
Nurses can help them cope with the situation. This can be done by empathy and understandings. Nurses have a very key role in this. They can encourage the victim to disclose about the domestic abuse and ask for support. Keeping quite will lead to further worsen the situation. The victims need to come out and seek help. If they keep the violence to themselves the acts might increase in severity. It might give more courage to the individual who is doing the act of cruelty. In severe situations in few cases, they need to be referred to shelter. In this situation, it becomes important where if the victim is allowed to live in the same house with the abuser then it might be a danger to her life. Women often face many practical problems in leaving their homes nurses can help them in their social setting. Also, the victim required a lot of emotional support and time (Archer, 2013). Proper counselling can help in achieving the lost self-esteem back. In many cases, there is some mental illness. This kind of illness can be taken care of by proper emotional support and counselling. The females with depression need special attention in the emotional aspect so that they can recover well. Cancelling and emotional support can help the victims to regain their confidence and way of life. Nurses need to understand that their own attitude affects the feeling of the victim. The government does consider the victims of domestic violence fall under the health care system. Nurses can identify abuse and take a holistic approach towards it. There are many barriers because of which women do not ask for help. They feel very shy or awkward to disclose the problem. It is the duty of the nurse to have an empathetic approach towards them so that they can look forward in life (Chiang, 2014). Give them new hope. Help them in establishing their own identity also do the routine counselling. In these victims, routine counselling is very important as it help them to disclose their feeling and concerns to a professional who can understand them. Nurses need to be a very patient listener. At times listing to someone is all that it takes. Nurses need to listen to their grief, concerns and tortured moments so that they can move on forward in life. Nurses need to ensure that the victim is able to access the services they need to achieve independence.
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