Construction Methods Research Assignment

Construction Methods Research Assignment

Introduction 

Nowadays, the industrial, cultural and economic growth of a country relies on the system of its transportation. The railways and highways help in providing maximum services to the customers. It has been observed that there is a scarcity of land because of the infrastructure’s development like buildings. As a result, the engineers are restricted to use weak and inferior soil for the process of construction. The various techniques of ground improvement are becoming very important for the projects of construction. This technique helps in increasing the soil’s strength and helps in reducing compressibility (Bitir et al, 2014). The soils which are expansive and collapsible are difficult to use because of their behavior of shrinkage and swelling action. The techniques of ground improvement help the construction easy on soft and organic soils, sanitary landfills, deposits of karst, etc. Further, the report contains the modern and important techniques of ground improvement with their applications.

Ground Improvement Techniques 

The various techniques of ground improvement which are used nowadays are as follows (Patra, N. R., 2014):

1. Mechanical Stabilization 

This technique helps in increasing the density of soil by using the mechanical force in the shape of vibratory rollers, static, plate vibrators, etc. in order to gain the compaction. Compaction can be done properly if the material of soil fill is graded properly. Further, it will be categorized by a coefficient of high uniformity Cu>15, a coefficient of curvature Cc within the range of 1 and 3 can be easily compacted to the high density with the help of tampers, rollers, and other tools. The content of optimum moisturizer should be analyzed, and compaction can be done near the OMC in order to gain density of max dry with the help of foot rollers (Das, B. M., 2015).  There are some methods of vibrations which are used and are as follows:
•  Vibro Flotation –
This method can be used for the deposits of the sand. The compaction can be gained through flooding and vibration the soil existent to it with the help of water. The vibro flotation includes the tube of cylindrical penetrator around 0.38 m in diameter and around 2 m in length and there is an eccentric weight within in the cylinder which helps in creating a motion of horizontal vibratory. The vibro flotation helps in re-arranging the grains of soil to a denser state. The loose grains of sand are arranged to a compact state through the exploitation of vibration and saturation of water.
The applications are-
?    Reduction in settlement of foundation.
?    Allows construction on the fills of granular.
?    Reducing the liquefaction risk.
•  Heavy Weight Compaction-
Under this, the compaction is done by repeatedly dropping the weight on the surface of the ground. This method is used for two types of soils i.e. cohesive and cohesion less. In order to carry the heavy weight, a crane is used in order to make them fall on the ground. The falling of weight will cause a pit on the ground. The process is further repeated at the same location and on the other parts of the location in order to compact them. The top soil is compacted in the same way with the help of light weights. 
The application is-
It is used for two types of soils i.e. cohesive and cohesion less.
•  Sand Compaction Piles-
In order to construct the sand compaction piles, a hollow pile with the closed bottoms is made for the requirement of the loose fill’s depth. Further, the pipe is filled with sand, and the pipe is taken out when the pressure of air is directed against the sand which is inside. The plate in the bottom opens up and sand backfills space which is hollow. The limit of fines can be 15% passing 0.07 mm sieve and 3% passing 0.004 sieves.
•  Stone Columns-
The methods which are used in the formation of compaction pile and the vibro flotation can also be used in the formation of stone columns. Under this the hollow steel will be filled with the stones in place of sand and the method will remain the same. The size of the stone varies from 6 to 40 mm and the spacing varies from 1 to 3 m. it is being assumed that the load of the foundation is carried by the installation of stone columns and there is no beneficence of intermediate ground.
The applications are-
?    Can be used in the deposits of sand to maximize the density.
?    Helps in stabilizing the slope.
?    Allows the construction of shallow footing.
?    Reduces the liquefaction risk.
•  Blending-
Blending is used in the projects of the highway. Sometimes, the deposits of the soil show the skip of the grading which shows the inadequacy of particles with some size. The missing sizes of the particle have to be added to minimize the ratio of the void. The addition of particles of missing size is called as blending. The main motive of blending is to reduce the ratio of the void. It is gained by acquiring distribution of particle size curve with the high uniformity coefficient.
The application is-
?    In the construction projects of the highway for the sub-grading of soil.
•  Blast Densification-
This technique is used for the loose soil of cohesion less and helps in increasing the density of the granular soil. The soil is liquefied with the impact of the explosive waves, and this causes the arrangement in the grains of the soil in order to gain the high density. The soil can be treated to 40 m in depth. The principle of this technique is to compact the soil with the help of explosive waves and the vibration which is created by blasting. The method is economical to use.
The applications are-
?    It is used in the sectors of the mining industry.
?    It is easy to treat and handle in large and deep depths.

2. Stabilization by Pre-Loading Method 

By this method the grained clays and silts, organic and sandy oils, etc. are stabilized easily. The load is put on the areas which are less compressible surface. The layer of sand is spread over the site as it acts as a layer of drainage which has the high level of permeability. The load on the layer maximizes the stress in the layer of the soil which maximizes the neutral stress and with time it becomes dissipated with the relegation of water and also decreases the ratio of the void. Therefore, the less compressible layer of soil becomes the stronger one. The rate of dissipation can be resolved from a theory of consolidation. When the layer goes through consolidation, the level of stress maximizes. The preordain magnitude of load is put in order to make the stress compressible.
The applications are –
?    Improvisation in the capacity of a bearing.
?    The method is suitable foe soft cohesive soil.
?    Minimizes the settlement of post construction.

3. Stabilization by Sand Drain Method 

Sand drains are also known as vertical drains, and these are substantial of high permeability which is inserted with the help of compressible layers. The spacing should be done in such a manner that the longest path of the horizontal travel of the particles of water becomes the fraction of the vertical path. The drains help in reducing the travel path for the particles of water and fastens the process of consolidation. As the permeability of the horizontal deposits of the layer is more than the permeability of the vertical deposits, the consolidation coefficient for the flow which is involved in the drains of sand is more than the vertical flow. This helps in gaining consolidation at a faster pace. At the time of installation of this method, the area around the periphery gets categorized, and the horizontal permeability gets minimized. 
The applications are-
?    This technique is mainly used in the conjunction.
?    The sand drains can be inducted in order to mitigate the excess pressure of hydrostatic without the loading of the surcharge.

4. Physical and Chemical Modification Techniques 

In this method, the improvement of soil is gained by the mixture of various chemicals in the layer of surface or column. The adhesive chemicals are waste materials, natural soils by-products of the industry, etc. (Serridge et al, 2012). There are some methods which are used in the physical and chemical modification techniques which are as follows:
•  Grouting –
This method is used for the underground construction, and it is commonly used now-a-days. The process includes the cavities in the hard strata with a material which is in liquid form in order to minimize the permeability and improvise the strength of the shear. In some situations, the chemical mixes of grout are used (Shivashankar et al, 2014). The creation of ultrafine mixes of grout has increased the interpretation of hydraulic base. It is also used in the gravel soil. The categorization of group mix is pasted in order to fill the holes or crack areas, suspensions in order to strengthen the joints, etc. 
•  Electro-osmosis-
It can be defined as the extension of various chemicals like calcium chloride, sodium silicate, etc. which results in the hardening of electro-chemicals. The chemicals strain to the surface of the ground which is flowing in the way of cathode when the anode is busy working as the pipe of group injection.
•  Soil Cement-
There are some mixtures which are used in stabilizing the soil in the projects of the highway like fly ash, slag of a blast furnace, etc. The applications of the soil cement contain the stabilization of the shallow depth, the treatment of the soil, etc. It has been researched that the very less quantity of cement can maximize the degree of stiffness and further the procedure is used in the stipulation of highways (Shahir et al, 2016). There are some benefits of the process like maximizing the durability, maximizing the degree of stiffness. There are some elements also which impact the soil improvement like compaction method, curing length, temperature, content of water and cement, etc.
•  Heating-
It has been researched that the heating causes eternal changes in the properties of soil and makes the material durable and hard. Convention of clay in a given load maximizes with the boost in the temperature. When the clay is heated, its properties gets changed. The particles of soil break down and are further formed as products of crystal. In order to heat the soil, electric current is being used.
The applications are-
?    The contaminated soil is mobilized.
?    Stabilization and densification.
•  Freezing-
The method relies on the transformation of in-situ pore water by using refrigeration. It further becomes the form of ice and works as a glue and cement. The various blocks of the rocks help in maximizing their collective strength which results in improvised structure. There are steps in the stabilization of method of freezing like thermal analysis, ground thermal properties, the requirement of energy, a rate of freezing and nature of refrigeration system. Water enlarge around 10% through the volume and doesn't assess any stress on the soil until water is apprehended within a bounded volume.
The applications are-
?    Provides temporary support for the excavation.
?    Prevents the flow of ground water into the shovel area.
?    Provides the temporary stabilization of slope.
•  Verification-
This technique is relied on the principle of refreezing and melting of soil in order to form a solid which entangles inorganic contaminations and separates it from the environment. A very high temperature is required in order to melt the soil. The contaminated soils with chemical and metals are treated with the help of vitrification methods. Vitrification has been seen as a possibly actionable way to delight contaminated soil with the metals and organic chemicals. 

5. Modification by Addition and Confinement Techniques

The soil can be qualified of modified with the help of reinforcement in various forms like meshes, fibers, fabric and strips. These elements are responsible for converting strength of the tensile in the soil mass. The retaining structure of stable earth can be made by restricting soil with the elements of fabric, steel, and geocell (Shivashankar & Jayaraj, 2014). From recent years, it has been observed that there is an increase in the usage of mixtures for the improvement of ground in the both types of soil i.e. cohesive and non-cohesive. There are some methods under this technique which are as follows (Latha & Murthy, 2007):
•    Geotextile Confined Columns-
This method includes the driving of 80 cm diameter of steel case into the soil which is being followed by positioning a geotextile wallop with the strength of tensile between 200 to 400 kN/m. further, it is filled with sand in order to form the column of sand. The principle of the method is to alleviate the load on soil even without changing the structure of the soil. The sand is filled in the cylindrical holes in order to form the columns of sand.
•    Rigid Inclusions-
This method is referred to the usage of integrated columns of rigid and semi-rigid in order to improve the performance of the ground which reduces the settlement and maximizes the capacity of a bearing. The various types of rigid inclusions are columns of stone, GCCs, SCPs, etc. But these are handled separately and differently because the materials which are used are different in nature.
•    Geosynthetic Reinforced Column-
This method is basically used for the construction of roads and railways over soft ground. In this method, the columns are used collectively with a platform of load transfer in order to support embankment on the soil. These columns can be GCC, stone columns or the various types of inclusions of rigid in order to increase the stability and minimize the embankment’s settlement.
•    Microbial methods-
In the method, the materials of microbial are used to transform the soil in order to maximize the strength and minimize the permeability. The principle of this method is to use microorganisms to generate the soil cementation in order to maximize the shear strength and minimize the permeability of the soil. There are some microorganisms which are suitable for this technique which is as follows:-
?    Bacteria of facultative anaerobic.
?    Bacteria of micro- aerophilic.
?    Bacteria of anaerobic fermenting.
?    Bacteria of anaerobic respiring.
?    Bacteria of obligate aerobic.

6. Other Methods-

These methods are the conventional methods of the formation of the sand pile by blasting is a technique of forming sand piles with the help of explosions with the charges of elongated blasting. While using this method, an extra layer of sand is put on the soil in order to get treated. The various natural products like timber and bamboo are used when the products are plentiful. The usage of these products is economical for the improvement of soil (Gunaratne, M.Ed., 2013). The application further consists the repair of slope and stabilization, embankment of piles and the construction of roads, etc. Further, the various techniques are used under this method which is as follows:- 
•    Soil Nailing-
The process of ground reinforcement applies tendons of steel that are drilled into the soil in order to develop a composite mass. Soil nailing is a technique of in-situ for the reinforcement, and the deep cuts are stabilized. Soil nailing cannot be used in plastic clays, organics, fills of cinder, rubber, etc. This method was established in 1972 in order to widen the rail roads in France. This method takes the less time, and it is cost effective as compared to other techniques. 
•    Reinforcement-
This technique helps in improving the responses of soil through the interaction among inclusion and soil. The period of improvisation relies on the inclusion's life. In this method, there is no variation in the state of the soil (Wissman et al, 2015). This method can be used for various types of soils. Fibers can also be used in order to give the strength of the tensile, confinement which further results in the maximization of stability of mass of the soil by minimizing the pressure of earth and minimize the deformation of cracks. The example of this technique is geosynthetics and stabilized wall of earth.
•    Micro Piles-
These are the piles with small diameter (300 mm), with the capacity of nourishing loads (500 KN). The equipment of drilling enables micro piles which are to be drilled by the conditions of the ground, artificial or natural, less vibration, noises, etc. the equipment can be used to work in various locations with the limited access (Suleiman et al, 2014). The construction of micro piles includes the drilling of a shaft of the piles to the necessary depth, putting the reinforcement of steel and putting the grout below the pressure where ever it is applicable. 
The applications are-
?    For the stability and structural support.
?    New structure foundations.
?    Repair in the foundations of the existing ones.
?    Forestallment of movement.
?    Protection and strengthening of soil.

Types of Soil 

The most important task is to find your type of soil. The soils have good qualities and can be improved if they are worked upon. There are some types of soil where the techniques of ground improvement are applicable which are as follows: (Brevik et al, 2015)
1.    Heavy Clay Soil
This type of soil grapple the water but in summer it becomes dry. Whereas, clay holds the moisture and nutrients and when you break it becomes more fertile with the extension of organic grit. Walking on the soil should be avoided as it will make it harder. The particles of clay soil are very fine in nature as compared to other types of soil. The size of the particles is approximately 0.002 mm. the clay soil has a texture of gluey and sticky whether it is dry or wet. The clay soil can be formed in any shape, and if it gets squeezed, then it doesn't break down. 
2.    Sandy Soil
This type of soil quickly losses water and causes free draining. It can be improved if there is an extension of matter of organics and the improver of soil. The soil gets warm in the season of spring. The particles of the sandy soil are very large approximately 0.05 to 0.10 mm (to the small end) and 1 to 2 mm (at the large end). This helps the soil to get a grainy texture and helps in making the soil light, and when it is stickled together, the soil gets drained very quickly.
3.    Chalky
This type of soil contains alkaline and the large clusters of chalk. Some are the combination of clay and chalk. This type of soil contains fewer nutrients and the organic matter will help in the improvement of the soil and will also increase the content of nutrients.
4.    Normal
This type of soil holds the moisture without obstructing the drainage. It also extracts nutrients and enables oxygen in order to circulate. This type of soil includes silt, clay, organic matter and sand in the same quantity.
5.    Silt soil
This type of soil is very fine in nature, and it feels floury when it is touched. When the soil is wet, it becomes very smooth like mud, and it can be easily formed to the balls and the various shapes. And if the soil is too wet then it melds with water easily in order to make puddles. The size of the particles is approximately 0.002 to 0.05 mm which causes the smooth texture. The soil gets drained but not as fast as sand.
6.    Loam Soil
This type of soil contains the combinations of particles of various type of soils. For example, a soil which includes 20% clay and 40% sand and 30% silt then it is called as a sandy clay loam. The other particles are very important in this type of soil i.e. loam soil.
Therefore, these types of soils are used in the various techniques of ground improvement and are very useful. 

Conclusion 

It can be concluded from the report that the techniques of the ground improvement are a solution for various soils and the techniques are cost effective and are technically attainable in order to make the construction suitable. The ground improvement techniques are being used in the projects like runways, structures of the industries, railways, highways, etc. The methods are being implemented across the world for the various types of soil like silt, sandy, loam, clay, etc. It is very important to keep the following things in mind while implementing the techniques of ground improvement i.e. nature of the soil and its type, loading intensity and the desired result of the performance. It is also very important to estimate the cost of the techniques before implementing it to the ground improvements. The report stated the various methods and the techniques of ground improvement with their applications. Further, the various types of soils are given which helped in understanding the soil and their nature. Then the table of finding is given which helped in understanding the type of soil which is required for the particular technique and the cost which will incur in implementing.
 

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REFERENCES

Bitir, A. C., & Musat, V. (2014). GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNOLOGIES DEEP SOIL MIXING METHODS. FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS. Buletinul Institutului Politehnic din lasi. Section Construction, Architecture, 60(4), 123.
Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., & Van Oost, K. (2015). The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL. Soil, 1(1), 117.
Das, B. M. (2015). Principles of foundation engineering. Cengage learning.
Gunaratne, M. (Ed.). (2013). The foundation engineering handbook. CRC Press.
Latha, G. & Murthy, V. (2007). Effects of reinforcement form on the behavior of geosynthetic reinforced sand. Geotextiles And Geomembranes, 25(1), 23-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2006.09.002
Patra, N. R. (2014). Ground Improvement Techniques.
Serridge, C. J., & Slocombe, B. (2012). Chapter 84 Ground improvement. In B. John, C. Tim, S. Hilary, & B. Michael (Eds.), ICE manual of geotechnical engineering (pp. 1247-1269). Thomas Telford Ltd.
Shahir, H., Pak, A., & Ayoubi, P. (2016). A performance-based approach for the design of ground densification to mitigate liquefaction. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 90, 381-394.
Shivashankar, R. & Jayaraj, J. (2014). Effects of prestressing the reinforcement on the behavior of reinforced granular beds overlying weak soil. Geotextiles And Geomembranes, 42(1), 69-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2013.08.008
Suleiman, M. T., Ni, L., & Raich, A. (2014). Development of pervious concrete pile ground-improvement alternative and behavior under vertical loading. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 140(7), 04014035.
Wissman, K. J., van Ballegooy, S., Metcalfe, B. C., Dismuke, J. N., & Anderson, C. K. (2015, November). Rammed aggregate pier ground improvement as a liquefaction mitigation method in sandy and silty soils. In6th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (pp. 1-4).

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