Assessment in Data Sampling

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Read through the competencies and reflect on what these competencies actually mean. Try to write down in simple language what each of the competencies mean to you…


1. Background of the study:

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The registered nurse (RN) practice is a crucial part of the heath care system in Australia. These nurses, with their evidence based and person centered services, account for the supportive, curative and restorative elements of the health services. In addition, the RNs also develop a therapeutic relation which helps them to understand the heath issues in a better way and providing them with better services (, 2018). It is evident that nurses have a wide range of abilities and skills which are effective for assisting the patients to overcome their mental and physical challenges.

The primary health care in Australia not only deals with managing the heath issues of an individual , but it also focuses on promoting health and ensuring overall well being of the community. The nurses play a very important role in the healthcare system. Health services and health practices are two key social determinants of health (World Health Organization., 2018;, 2018). Nurses, with their skills and abilities enhance quality of the health services and practices. So, it is necessary that they are adhering to the rules and standards and utilizing all the abilities to the optimum level. The National health priority areas include issues like cancer, diabetes, injury, dementia and other mental health issues (, 2018). Incorporating the standards of practices in the activities helps the nurses to assess a health problem critically and find out the best solution for it (Hegney et al.2014; Melnyk et al.2015). Development of the therapeutic relation is critical for understanding issues faced by the patient and solving those. However, while developing the therapeutic relationship, the nurses should focus on adhering to the professional code of conducts and obtaining the best outcome from it. Knowledge on the practice standards helps the nurses to utilize the therapeutic relation fully and obtain the expected outcomes.

The research, under review, identifies the standards of practices for the RNs. The study also guides them to identify how the RNs can incorporate those practices. It indicates that the paper can help the RNs to utilize their skills and abilities fully to enhance quality of the health services. It can be stated that the research is highly significant to enable the RNs for delivering quality health services.

2. Overview of the research design:


Aim of the research was demonstrating the seven standards of practices for the nursing professionals. The research also aimed to make the nursing professionals aware of the facts on how to implement the practices in their activities.
The research has been conducted using the descriptive design. The descriptive research is effective to demonstrate the research problem in detail (Lewis, 2015). The descriptive research gives a better understanding on the research topic and sets the definitions. The descriptive research design is effective to identify characteristics of the research issue. In case of this research design, the researcher gets flexibility to use the past researches on to describe the research issue. 

The main characteristics of the descriptive research are –
•    The descriptive researches can be of three types – observational researches , case study based researches and the survey based researches 
•    The descriptive study describes a population and its characteristics, although it does not state how and when the characteristics occurred (Roller, 2015).
•     This type of research design analyses a situation using the qualitative or quantitative data or uses the both.
•    As the descriptive design describes the general characteristics of a population, it helps the researcher a lot to compare between two population groups.
In this case, the descriptive design helped the researcher a lot to fulfill aim of the study. Firstly, the study aimed at demonstrating the standards of practices used by the nursing professionals. Use of descriptive design enabled the researcher to do that. The research also aimed at demonstrating how the nurses can implement the standards of practices in their regular activities. Use of descriptive design enabled the researcher to discuss the ways to incorporate the standard of the practices in their activities. Use of descriptive research design helps the researcher to conduct the study on basis of qualitative data. In this case also, selection of the descriptive study assisted the researcher to conduct the study on basis of qualitative data. 

3. Sampling:

The population which is used in the study was the registered nurses (RN). The registered nurses in Australia are not only responsible for providing the health care services to the patients, assisting them to get rid of their health issues, but the nurses are also accountable for maintaining the non-clinical relationship with patients (Melnyk et al.2015). In addition, the registered nurses in Australia are also responsible for guiding the enrolled nurses and other healthcare professionals. 
All the registered nurses of the Australia were included in the population and the research was conducted to make all the RNs aware of the standards of practices .However, all other nursing and health care professionals were excluded from the study.

In case of health care, every professional has to take different responsibilities. Therefore, the practices the health care professionals use to carry out their responsibilities also vary with the nature of job (Hegney et al.2014). It indicates that the standards of practices for different types of professionals are different. In other words, different standards of practices need to be developed for enabling the professionals to execute their tasks efficiently. It indicates that identification of the inclusion and exclusion criteria before selection of the population for the study.

In this study, the entire population of the registered nurses was chosen for identifying and describing the standards of practices in the healthcare system. It can be considered that the focused group sampling was used in the study. Use of focused sampling helps the researcher to collect data on a small representative group of the population and use the data to analyze characteristics of the entire population (Flick, 2014).
Use of the focused group sampling helped the researcher to identify the standard practices for all the registered nursing professionals in Australia. The study aimed to describe the general guidelines for the RNs. So, use of the sampling helped the researcher to identify and describe the guidelines in general.

4. Data collection:

The data in the research is collected using the literature review. In the research, the relevant literature on the practices for registered nurses, the national healthcare framework in Australia and the professional boundaries for the nursing professionals were reviewed and the findings are used to develop the standards of practices for the nurses.
 In this case, the researchers, through literature review, identified the professional boundaries and duties for the nurses. The researchers also focused on assessing the national healthcare framework in Australia. On basis of the facts revealed in the literature, the researchers described seven standards for the nurses and also described how the nursing professionals can implement those.

Use of literature review helped the researchers to consider all aspects of the duties of the nurses and develop the right standards of practices which help the nurses to incorporate all the aspects (Marshall & Rossman, 2014). It is evident that the literature review helped the researchers to obtain a deeper insight on the research topic.

The literature review provides the researchers with the following benefits:
•     Literature review enables the researcher to get a idea on the current state of the research topic.
•     From literature review, the researcher can know what other experts are thinking on the research topic (Fusch & Ness, 2015)
•     Using literature review, the researcher can identify the research questions which needs further study.
•    The right methodology for a research topic can be identified by reviewing the similar literature
 The disadvantage of extensive reliance on literature review is, it may restrict the researcher to describe the research issue only instead of critically analyzing it.
 The researchers in this study focused on using the secondary data collection only. The researchers could also use the primary data collection from selected groups of nurses to get real life insight on their issues.

5. Data analysis/results:

The current research deals with analysis on the qualitative data. In this case, the researchers have used the framework analysis to assess the data.
 The data collected from the qualitative research needs to be interpreted in the right way to get the accurate findings. Without using the right framework, categorization and interpretation of the data is not possible (Flick, 2014). However, all analysis tools is not suitable for analyzing and interpreting all the data types. So, it can be stated that selection of the right data analysis tool is crucial. Use of framework analysis in this case helped the researcher to categorize the collected data and interpret them accordingly. 
The researchers have considered all the aspects of the topic while conducting the study. Findings of the study identify the key standards of practices for the RNs and also describe how the nurses can execute those. The findings can be used by the RNs to execute their activities in all paid and non-paid roles.


Flick, U. (2014). An introduction to qualitative research. Sage.
Fusch, P. I., & Ness, L. R. (2015). Are we there yet? Data saturation in qualitative research. The qualitative report, 20(9), 1408.
Health Literacy Studies. (2018). Health Literacy Studies. Health Literacy Studies. Retrieved 18 April 2018, from
Hegney, D. G., Craigie, M., Hemsworth, D., Osseiran?Moisson, R., Aoun, S., Francis, K., & Drury, V. (2014). Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: study 1 results. Journal of Nursing Management, 22(4), 506-518.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475.
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2014). Designing qualitative research. Sage publications.
Melnyk, B. M., Gallagher?Ford, L., Long, L. E., & Fineout?Overholt, E. (2014). The establishment of evidence?based practice competencies for practicing registered nurses and advanced practice nurses in real?world clinical settings: proficiencies to improve healthcare quality, reliability, patient outcomes, and costs. Worldviews on Evidence?Based Nursing, 11(1), 5-15. (2018). Registered nurse standards for practice. Retrieved 18 April 2018, from
Roller, M. R. (2015). Qualitative research design. Gloucester, VA: Roller Marketing Research.
World Health Organization. (2018). Social determinants of health. World Health Organization. Retrieved 18 April 2018, from (2018). Health & welfare overview Health & welfare overview - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved 18 April 2018, from

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