Assessment Folder on Primary Healthcare

1.    Watch the video "It takes a village"  starting at 15:00mins to focus on the community-building project in Kalumburu, an Indigenous community in Western Australia. Watch this section of the video a few times so that you become familiar with the content. The video will provide the background and examples for the written questions.
2.    Review the relevant chapters from the essential text and additional learning materials in the vUWS Assessment folder.
3.    Write your answers to the 4 set questions, listed in the marking criteria below, making sure to include examples from the video where prompted, and drawing on the models of Social Determinants of Health and Principles of Primary Health Care from Chapter 1, McMurray and Clendon (2015).
4.    Please write your answers in question-answer format NOT essay format i.e. number your answer to each question.
5.    Answers to questions 1-4 will have a maximum word limit that will total 1500 words (there is a 10% leeway)
6.    Include a reference list that covers your answers to the 4 set questions and the video. Make sure to follow APA 6th referencing style for the reference list. 
7.    Note that the assessment will be out of a possible 80 marks. As Assessment 2 is weighted at 40%, your mark will be adjusted accordingly.
8.    Your submission to Turnitin should include ALL the following: responses to the 4 questions and the reference list.
Assessment 2: Assessment questions
Question 1:
The social determinants of health inform the way we use primary health care to help communities to maintain health and wellness. Using relevant examples from the video, identify and discuss how two (2) social determinants of health helped determine the need for the project.
Question 2:
Using relevant examples from the video, identify and explain how 2 primary health care principles guided the project in the video. 

Question 3:
Identify one National Health Priority Area that will be impacted on as a result of the program. Explain how this has the potential to impact the health of children or adults in the community, now or in the future.
Question 4:
Define cultural competence and cultural safety. Discuss why these concepts are important considerations when developing a program like the one in the video. Provide at least one example from the video where these concepts are demonstrated.


Question 1

The first social determinant that needs to be addressed in the health system working for the community is the social support system where the people are supportive of one another s needs and help one another in ensuring children health in the community. The health care system that is used in Australia by the government is not suitable for the indigenous communities as the different cultural beliefs and social exclusion affects the community and its health standards (Zubrick & Silburn, 2006). Therefore, the incident of several men being arrested for child sexual abuse was the last straw that literally broke the camel’s back and ensured social support system needed to be in place to not only develop community-based support but also increase the accessibility and awareness (King, Smith & Gracey, 2009). 
The second determinant of health is the stress as the community was shocked by the incidence of crime against children by their own community members, which made them ashamed but also receptive to outside help in rebuilding their community in all age levels. The help of the elders to guide the youth to unite to ensure community health and plan intervention is one of the most direct outcomes of the project focusing on this social determinant. An elder also tells of his experience of youth where the food was plentiful and physical activities in the daily activities kept the kids and the whole community healthy (Zubrick & Silburn, 2006). Thus, and intermingling of western health system into the whole community and combine that with the knowledge of elder who has extensive knowledge of nursing and midwifery (Kirmayer, Simpson & Cargo, 2003). 
This is a vision, which is supported by various organizations, who repents nurses and midwives. They are working since 2009 in Australia in every health sector and taking care of the aged patient. The primary health care concord view of is supported by nursing and different midwifery organization. Primary health care can be defined as a globally accessible which is based on the indication, provided with a complete method in association with community’s provision. This primary health care policy can be observed as a most significant trend or track in health care.

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Question 2

NWAU is a great measure of activity cost. It is measured against NEP cost. It helps hospitals to get rid of from their medical complexity. NEP and NWAU are multiplying units of a hospital, which helps to get the final cost sheet of that hospital. This cost model is superfluously needed for the hospital to better the condition of the hospitals, services of the worker, increases the efficiency of the worker, effectiveness and smooth activity.

Funding for the health care system of Australia combines Govt. capitalization and private indemnification. Govt. capitalization is done through the Medicare scheme. Which sponsor medical treatment at the hospital and provide funding for free global admittance to hospital for treatment? Most of the time Individual has to pay for any type of medical treatment and then Individual will receive some amount as a refund. With the help of Medicare, Individuals allowed to some treatment in public hospital without any charges. This is one of the main concerns of the community in the video as the community is poor and the lack of awareness of the services available and the cost of western treatment is a barrier for most members of the community (King, Smith & Gracey, 2009). Some of the Australian planned to get another health insurance (private) to wrap the cost, which is not covered by Medicare. Health scheme grants the fund for private health, which is provided by n number organization of health insurance this, is called ‘Health Fund’. The main criterion of these agreements is to increase the funding of the healthcare organization to improve the condition of the medical facilities and treatments. The community-based intervention in proper nutrition and guidance for awareness of the needs of the children are another example of the conditions of the community where the previous lively hood where the indigenous people lived off the land was deemed a better option as then the children did not go hungry.  This funding is crucially important because it will help Australian healthcare organizations and medical centre to improve the condition of the children and ensure proper nutrition (Kirmayer, Simpson & Cargo, 2003). This collection of money uses by both government and private hospital. Therefore, by providing funding for private hospitals the reach for the health care system can be increased and the same can be said about the understanding of the needs of the children for proper growth and development.  This funding gives to the public hospitals by judging their services activity and efficient work towards patients.

Question 3

It has been established in retort to The WHO (World Health Organization). It was in association with Commonwealth & national territory of Australian Govt., various non-govt. body and clinicians with health experts. It was built up to look after the health of the people of Australia who contribute the burden of virus in the nation. This area’s having a potential for health recovery. Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander are the example of NHPA.The Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander are the people of Tasmania and Queensland, which is in the northeast part of Australia respectively. They keep themselves separate from the people of the rest of Australia. It is very much important to provide these people with awards of cultural safety and health. 
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander's standard of health is very poor compared to other Queenslanders. Various improvements have been done by the Australian govt. but there is a gap in life expectancy of these people is compared to rest of the other people and is significantly very high (Mussell, Cardiff & White, 2000). The different reason for illness and premature death now can be prevented. But still, there are a huge number of barriers is present there which prevent entrance of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander to a good quality health system. The recent inconsistency in their community is mostly multigenerational trauma, deep-rooted gender discrimination and loss of their traditional cultural identities.
As per my thinking, the recognition of different aboriginal people is a starting point to form an effective relationship with those people and their communities nowadays. In case of the condition of their health, various diseases had the most impact, which is considered as destructive on aboriginal people and their culture. Some of those diseases are - smallpox, typhoid, measles, syphilis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough etc. Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islanders are the most disadvantaged group in entire Australia. They are significant than other Australians.


Question 4

Cultural Safety

It is very much important to provide these people with an awareness of cultural safety. The purpose of the cultural awareness of Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander is to provide them with understanding as well as awareness about Indigenous Culture. Culturally appropriate discussion process is very much necessary to avoid miscommunication, misunderstanding, reading, and demonstrating appropriate body language and language. It is not possible to transfer a relationship with one community to another one automatically. You have to invest time in contact building and demonstrating respect to every aboriginal community, you've worked with.  Every aboriginal community has its uniqueness (Kirmayer, Brass & Tait, 2000). There is a number of board terms are used to identify one aboriginal person or indigenous person. The example of this is present in the community-based intervention where the same message is passed to the different age groups through the intervention.  The development of a standard of living that would allow the community to determine the ones who are needing attention can then be used to develop the inclusion policy in the healthcare scheme. Thus, the community level support system building based on the cultural safety is probably the best strategy for health and safety ion indigenous children.
Cultural competence 
The rising multiplicity of the country carries prospects as well as challenges for healthcare suppliers, healthcare schemes, and plan creators to make along with carrying culturally competent facilities. Cultural competence is distinct as the information of the different shortcomings of the community is important in the Instances of plans to shift the health care system. The example of the previous methods of living where the children were provided for by the whole community and the various physical activities that were part of their daily activities kept them healthy (Zubrick, et al., 2004). The elders are often aware and the community needs to be addressed as whole to ensure the unity of the community helps spread the awareness of their culture. Thus, the immersion of the workers in the community is one example of cultural competence where the knowledge delivery to the community has been formed and this was easily accepted in the community as a whole. The cooperation developed through the community-based intervention, therefore, is probably the best practical implementation of the service. 



King, M., Smith, A., & Gracey, M. (2009). Indigenous health part 2: the underlying causes of the health gap. The Lancet, 374(9683), 76-85.
Kirmayer, L. J., Brass, G. M., & Tait, C. L. (2000). The mental health of Aboriginal peoples: Transformations of identity and community. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45(7), 607-616.
Kirmayer, L., Simpson, C., & Cargo, M. (2003). Healing traditions: Culture, community and mental health promotion with Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Australasian Psychiatry, 11(sup1), S15-S23.
Marmot, M. (2005). Social determinants of health inequalities. The lancet, 365(9464), 1099-1104.
Mussell, B., Cardiff, K., & White, J. (2000). The mental health and well-being of Aboriginal children and youth: Guidance for new approaches and services. Children's Health Policy Centre.
Zubrick, S., & Silburn, S. (2006). Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health survey: improving the Educational experiences of Aboriginal children and Young people.
Zubrick, S., Lawrence, D., Silburn, S., Blair, E., Milroy, H., Wilkes, E., ... & Doyle, S. (2004). The Western Australian Aboriginal child health survey: The health of Aboriginal children and young people. Telethon Institute for Child Health Research.

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