ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

 

Question: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

1. Introduction

The Artificial Intelligence refers to the information technology systems that have the ability to sense, act, comprehend and even learn. These systems have a multiple technologies which help the computers to so attain qualities like computer vision, sensor processing and even audio processing in order to perceive the world, further analyzes as well as understands all the data and information collected for example, knowledge representation or natural language processing.Furthermore, the computer systems are assisted by getting informed decisions from the AI which includes machine learning. Computer and applications that are embedded with AI are termed as intelligent machines. These intelligent systems help in connecting the processes, machines and people. 
Artificial Intelligence is a product of merging of various disciplines varying from psychology, mathematics, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neurology and numerous other fields like evolutionary sciences and genetic engineering etc. Having diverse origins, it has a varying scope of application.  It has been quoted by Thomas Ray that: The umbrella of Artificial Life is broad, and covers three principal approaches: . . .. “In hardware (e.g., robotics, nanotechnology), in software (e.g., replicating and evolving computer programs), in wetware (e.g., replicating and evolving organic molecules, nucleic acids or others).”
Artificial intelligence has successfully being defined by McCarthy (2007) as “the science and engineering of the making intelligent agents”. Higher-level of researches and institutions of learning have been engaged with the research and development of the artificial intelligences namely, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) etc. therefore, it can be concluded that artificial intelligence has been an integral part of the information technology and technology industry and has helped in solving various complex problems using the computer science.  

2. Discussions

2.1 Artificial Intelligence benefits to the society
Due to various benefits of Artificial Intelligence which range from personal or commercial. The prime goal of the AI is to solve issues and problems. All the intelligent agents have been engineered towards carrying out the various tasks which are highly efficient as compared to the human creators including computing problems and heavy calculations. AI has been highly beneficial towards international and large corporations. (Negnevitsky, M., 2005) 
These corporations have been highly efficient in incorporating the technologies into the business models and business plans. This introduction of intelligent agents into the workforce has led to decreasing the latency and increases the profit margins. These artificial intelligence could be utilized for assisting the economic forecasting, enhancing the revenue opportunities and other projections.  A large data being analyzed instantaneously helps in solving complex problems and detecting various patterns so as to make the issues easier for the human kind.  
AI has also been incorporated with the military research teams and various universities have also been working to towards helping in corporation towards building drones and cars. These power machines have made their life easier. The Armed Services have also been embedded with AI, various researcher have been trying to develop the bomb-detecting drones which can be beneficial in moving across mine fields and detecting the potential threats. In the same manner, the universities have been working along with the cooperation of the government and various business for developing state-of-the-art in the self-driving automobiles. (De Landa, M., 1992). 
AI system on being mature have been beneficial towards providing important advancements in the society like education, healthcare, economy and various other fields. It has helpful in diagnosing the diseases to help the doctors, helping the virtual teachers with all the knowledge at the fingertips available in the internet and has successfully been fabricated in our daily lives and even helps in making decisions on how to drive our cars. 
2.2 Artificial Intelligence benefits to the businesses
1. Replacing the human resource
The repetitive jobs being completed by the humans can be performed by the machine intelligence using AI. The machines embedded with AI have higher thinking power than the humans and can do multi-tasking. Various dangerous tasks can be employed by the machines with various adjustments in their parameters. These parameters are highly useful in characterizing their speed and time. We interact with the artificial intelligence when an individual plays a computer game or is running a computer-controlled robot. All the manual work posing threats to the human lives can be changed to the machines so as to help the workforce and ensure their safety. Furthermore, the reduction of errors and high chances of accuracy are also possible in the business. 
Therefore the assistance of artificial intelligence, can help in getting any job done without hassle and the management can inculcate a ‘tireless factor’.
2. Developing a logical side
The corporations and the business organizations can use the digital assistants to interact with the clients. The machines and AI embedment helps in stay away from the emotional front, enabling the businesses to take a rational decision with no distraction. With a complete absence of the emotional side, the machines are able to think logically helping to take a right decision. It is seen that the emotions are highly associated with the clouding of judgments and therefore affecting the human efficiency.  
2.3 Risks related to the realm of computer science
1. Programming errors 
The software programming errors in the major projects like HealthCare.gov etc. when riddled with various bugs, are seen to have delays and major nuisances. Some of the software errors have also been associated with direct deaths and costly outcomes. Furthermore, the process of verification of the software systems and their behavior are highly critical and challenging. Therefore due to the high complexity of AI embedded systems and their associated enlistment in high-staking role namely surgical robots, controlling automobiles, weapons etc., there is a need to redouble all the efforts in order to ensure the quality of the software.
The AI software are being developed and validated so as to achieve high degree of quality.  For instance, the spacecraft systems and the autopilot systems are tested and then validated. The prime challenge is to make sure that all the systems which are built automatically using the statistical “machine learning” methods must be working properly and furthermore the AI systems must be made well equipped to encounter every unforeseen situations. 
2. Cyberattacks
The cyber-attacks are the risks associated with the criminals and other adversaries being attacking the computer with the help of viruses and related malware. The algorithms related to AI are similar to other algorithms prone to the cyber-attacks. As these algorithms have been performing high-stake decisions like controlling a robot and driving a car, the impact a virus or the malware can be highly devastating. Various government agencies and related corporations have been supporting cyber security projects so as to provide novel method against cyber-attacks. The AI algorithms must be in a way that they were highly confident towards surviving the large-scale the cyber-attacks. 
2.4 The ethical issues related to Artificial Intelligence
1. Legal nature of the robots
Various ethical questions have been raised which has inspired people and making them highly fearful. But the most important question is the legal nature of the robots which can simply be assumed as the product of their creators and as a result being called as the property of the creator. Therefore a direct question is posed on the creation of the robots and their associated human feeling as well as emotions. Leading to a direct question towards the intelligence of the robots and its feelings. The AI research and development have been posed with the questions beyond the scientific computing and numerous questions have been posed so far.  The question of creation of replica of human beings have always been criticized. It has been stated that intelligence being a gift of nature is not subjected to be installed in the machines for making them work for our own benefits.  Further due to lack of moral values and ethics, machines can be highly dangerous. 
2. Brainwashing
The working of a brain and its imitation is a tremendous challenge and therefore the current processor power and its complexity cannot be reached even the rudimentary levels. The only way is to artificially create the intelligence and instill in them. However, the question surrounding the ethical and moral values is still imposed. These robots are highly prone to be religiously biased and can be ruthlessly calculative. Furthermore, if the robots are designed with a perfect ascetic mind, they would be able to please the human needs. These robots can be brainwashed to develop negative thoughts against any community or group of people. (Russell, Suart J, Norvig, Peter, 2003). 
2.5  Health Sector and Artificial Intelligence
In the health sector various applications of AI have been found. The doctors are able to assess all their patients and related health risks using the artificial machine intelligence. The various medicines and their side effects can be studied using AI. Furthermore, various medical professionals are being trained with artificial surgery simulators. AI has been a beneficial factor in the field of detecting as well as monitoring the neurological disorders due to simulation of the brain. The mental health patients have been found to be benefitted from coming out of depression and to remain active. Another very important application of artificial intelligence is in the field of radiosurgery. The radiosurgery has been very useful in operating the tumors and help in various operations without being harmful towards the surrounding tissues. (Barahona, P., & Christensen, J. P., 1994).
Furthermore, various artificial neural networks have been devised as clinical decision support systems in the medical diagnosis like EMR and concept processing technology. The other tasks in healthcare using the artificial intelligence include:
• Heart sound analysis
• Companion robots for the elderly people
• Computer-aided interpretation for the medical images. These systems can help in scanning the digital images in case of digital appearances and conspicuous sections and highly beneficial in detecting tumor.
Mostly the artificial intelligence tools have been useful to the doctors and patients:
• Provides a laboratory for representation, examination and cataloguing the immense medical information.
• Devising tools or supporting decision making process and related research.
• Offers a rich content in the future scientific medical community. 
• Integration of software, medical and cognitive sciences. (Della Mea, V., 2001). 
2.6 Artificial Intelligence in the chain of hotels owned by Concord Australia Pty Ltd
1. Enhance Customer Experience By Using AI Metis Platform
One of the sectors which are thinking seriously on the topic of applications of AI is the hospitality sector. Concord Australia can use it in identifying the needs and wants of the guests so as to incorporate these thoughts from guests in their hospitality nature. This will help in enhancing the customer experience allowing in eschewing the standardized hospitality industry measurement techniques like the customer satisfaction surveys and mystery shoppers and further the customers’ feedback has been digitalized using the AI applications and software. This step will be highly beneficial in increasing the customer experiences and therefore increasing their satisfaction.( Statt, N. ,2016).
2. Robot For On the Spot Response
The hospitality department of the Concord Australia can build their robot concierge which can help in catering the needs of the guests and the tourists so as to provide them with the information and data related to the hotel and its neighboring area. 
This robot can be helpful in giving quick access to the personalized information using the cognitive reasoning as well as robotics. This would be highly beneficial in enhancing the customer experiences. The robot should be enabled with the business information and knowledge so as to interact with the business class travelers. The robot can direct these customers to the conference rooms or family time etc. (How brands are using artificial intelligence to enhance customer experience, 2016).

Conclusion

AI in hospitality industry can be beneficial in improving the efficient, increasing the revenues, reducing the costs and boosting customer satisfaction. These areas can in turn improve the critical areas of customer experience. 
The machines can easily respond to the varying needs of the travelers and related requests at the reception desk of the hotel and if highly enabled, they can even assist in the personal enquiries in all the type of on and off environment and surroundings. 

References

Barahona, P., & Christensen, J. P. (1994). Knowledge and Decisions in Health Telematics: The Next Decade (Vol. 12). IOS Press.
Della Mea, V. (2001). What is e-health (2): the death of telemedicine?.Journal of Medical Internet Research, 3(2), e22.
How brands are using artificial intelligence to enhance customer experience. (2016). Marketing Week. Retrieved 10 September 2016, from https://www.marketingweek.com/2016/05/18/how-brands-are-using-artificial-intelligence-to-enhance-customer-experience/
McCarthy, J. (2007). What is artificial intelligence. URL: http://www-formal. stanford. edu/jmc/whatisai. html, 38.
Negnevitsky, M. (2005). Artificial intelligence: a guide to intelligent systems. Pearson Education.
Russell, S. J., Norvig, P., Canny, J. F., Malik, J. M., & Edwards, D. D. (2003). Artificial intelligence: a modern approach (Vol. 2). Upper Saddle River: Prentice hall.
De Landa, M. (1992). War in the age of intelligent machines.
Statt, N. (2016). Theverge.com. Retrieved 10 September 2016, from http://www.theverge.com/2016/3/9/11180418/hilton-ibm-connie-robot-watson-hotel-concierge

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