The project that has been selected is concerned with the implementation of integrated information system within the existing operation of a hospital. The hospital is currently operating at a location and almost all the activities are conducted on manual basis. Activities such as entry of patient information, scheduling the physicians for each incoming patient, and others are handled through paper-pen method. There are few computers that are present in some of the department such as marketing and human resource, and at the receptionist desk. However, these systems are standalone and serve no major purpose other than generating paper based reports and mailing reports to concerned individuals. Things are running fine till now, but the hospital administration is willing to open two new hospital centres at different locations within the city. This move is likely to increase the customer count in hospital and management of large number of customer base will be challenging in manual process.
Therefore, the company management wants to establish a centralised information system. Moreover, the company is willing to attract customers for the new hospital centre. For this purpose, it wants to establish online website that will provide customers information about the services that are available at the hospital. The website will also be working as the online booking for the customers. Along with the website, the mobile application will also be developed to gain better reach. The mobile application will work in complete harmony with the website and other back-end systems. Both, website and mobile application will have payment facilities.
The sections ahead discuss the various aspects that are associated with the implementation of the new system, website, and mobile application. The project management methods have been discussed that will be applied to complete this project implementation.
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Project management is the combination of activities that are conducted to undertake the defined objectives (Duncan, 1996). There are two major aspects that are always considered while conducting the project activities, namely, time and cost. Completion of the project within the defined timeline and within the given budget is important to build credibility among the clients. The projects are mostly developed within the defined time schedules.The major challenge that is faced by the project manager to finish the project within the timeline due to the constant risks posed.
Principle of Project Management
There are various aspects or principles that are important for the project success. These are structure of the project, defining the entire project activities and appropriate goals. The project status should be transparent to the entire stakeholders so that everyone stays on the same page while moving ahead with the project success and completion (Cleland, 2006). The risks should be recognised earliest as possible to ensure that the elements for mitigation are defined earlier. Moreover, the responsibilities of all the internal stakeholders should be clearly defined to eliminate any chances of confusion.
Role of Project Manager
The project manager ensures that the project is going as per the defined schedules and all the team members are working with coordination. The project manager handles the entire project activities and acts as the one point contact between the external and internal stakeholders (Munns and Bjeirmi, 1996). The responsibilities of the project managers are planning the entire project activities, procuring or arranging the resources required to complete the project, and then executing the plans devised in the beginning.The project manager should ensure that they have maintained the project quality at the appreciable level which is acceptable to the stakeholders of the project.
Project Environment and the impact of external influences
The project management largely depends on how the environment is being carried or the environment in which the project is being handled. There are various factors that impact the functioning of the individuals within the project. The internal stakeholders such as the project team and the employees of the company plays crucial role in the success of the project (Kerzner, 2013). If the employees and the project team members are supportive then it is likely that the project will be finished with less mental effort, else it will be drain on the mental and physical energy of the individuals involved in the project. The external factors also plays important role in influencing the project environment, and therefore it is necessary that the project manager allows limited intervention of factors from outside.
Identification and Importance of Project Phases
There are various project phases such as project conception, defining and planning the project, executing the project, controlling the project activities and performances, and then closing the project. These project phases are an integral part of the project management activities. The identification of the project phases is important as it helps the project manager or project team in effectively directing the entire project towards the achievement of the project goals or objectives. These five basic phases are common to all the project activities and following them step by step ensures project success.
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Integrating Human and Material Resources
The integration of the human and material resources within the project calls for understanding the requirements of the materials for the project, procuring them within the deadline and handing them over to the appropriate individual to complete the activity. The integration ensures that the project has appropriate number of individuals assigned and the resources are ample for the completion (Burke, 2013). The human resource within the project management are an integral part for the project and minor mismanagement might lead to the excessive derailment of the project deadline which eventually impacts the project budget.
This chapter is concerned with understanding the project plan of the implementation of the new integrated information system within the hospital network. There are various aspects that have been addressed in the following sections such as work break down structure, execution strategy, role of team members, and others.
The scope of the project is concerned with the things that will be covered within this project (Atkinson, 1999). The development of the integrated information technology for the hospital covers three areas, namely, integrated information system (IIS), website and mobile application development. Under IIS, multiple computer systems will be implemented in all the departments present within the organization and all will be connected with a network. These network computers will be integrated with the cloud based storage server. The server will contain all the data of the employees and customers. The information will be available to authorized individuals through online application.The second area is the development of the website that can be accessed from anywhere. The website will be integrated with the new database. The customers will be able to apply for appointments, create their personal profile, track their progress, view prescriptions, book physicians, and make online payments. The third area is the development of the mobile application. The mobile application will have all the facilities similar to that of the website. However, only one feature will be more in this and that is of notifications that will received by the customers.
Work Breakdown Structure
The work breakdown structure of the project has been shown in the below table. The project schedule has been prepared using the same work breakdown structure.
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Project Execution Strategy
The entire project execution will be defined in the initial phase of the project development. Despite this being a software development and implementation project, the project will be using the waterfall methodology to complete the project. The reason behind the selection of the waterfall strategy is the deep experience of the project team in handling such project activities. The project team is sure that none of the activities require reversing during the development or the deployment. There are few activities that are likely to be completed simultaneously such as ISS, website and mobile development. Though this will incur some more cost as it require hiring more developers to work simultaneously, but it will save time for the project completion.
Role of the Project Team
The project team for this project will be handling the project activities as assigned to them by the project manager. It will be there responsibilities to ensure that they are clear about the things they are supposed to do while being on the team. The performance appraisal at the end of the project completion will assess who will be given bonus based on their active involvement with the project (Larson and Gray, 2011). Apart from this, the project team will also try to come up with ideas that can help in improving the efficiency and complete the project faster and within the given budget. They must act in coordination while working on their respective project activities and maintain harmony.
The project success criteria are the reflection of areas mentioned in the project scope. If the elements mentioned in the project scope section above are achieved within the given budget and timeline, then it will assumed the project has succeeded. In brief, the successful implementation of integrated information system, functional cloud based storage, and appropriately working website and mobile application are the success criteria for this project.If the project manager fails to deliver these things within the given timeline, then it will be considered as the project failure and the hospital might be compensated for the same.
Project Monitoring and Control
The project monitoring and control is necessary for the success of the project. It ensures that the project stays on track during the entire project development. The project manager will appoint a project controller who will monitor the project progress against the timeline and budget assigned to each of the activities as mentioned in the work breakdown structure. The presence of project controller will ensure that the project is being monitored in accordance with the time and budget. Moreover, the PC will be responsible to ensure that the quality of the materials procured are also up to the mark and the output given by the individuals at work are suitable enough to lead the project towards timely completion.
The reporting related to the project is an essential aspect as it ensure that all the stakeholders, whether internal or external, are connected with the project (Meredith and Mantel, 2011). This project will use email and paper based reporting method for the external stakeholders. The reports will be sent every fifteen days that will mention the project progress clearly identifying things that are complete and those yet to be done. It will also contain the amount invested from the budget and amount left. The internal stakeholders such as project team members will be informed about the project progress every three days in a team meeting.
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Atkinson, R., 1999. Project management: cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomenon, its time to accept other success criteria. International journal of project management, 17(6), pp.337-342.
Burke, R., 2013. Project management: planning and control techniques. New Jersey, USA.
Carnegie, A., 2015. The Project and its Impact on Project Leadership. Project Leadership, p.55.
Kendrick, T., 2015. Identifying and managing project risk: essential tools for failure-proofing your project. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
Kerzner, H.R., 2013. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Meredith, J.R. and Mantel Jr, S.J., 2011. Project management: a managerial approach. John Wiley & Sons.
Shinghal, R. and Toussaint, G.T., 1979. A bottom-up and top-down approach to using context in text recognition. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 11(2), pp.201-212.
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