1- Write a report on "Terrorism & Homeland Security" in 400 words
The Soviet - Afghan war was fought from 24th December, 1979 to 15th February, 1989 and took place between the Mujahedeen’s (Afghan rebels) and the Soviet Union backed Afghan government. The mujahedeen’s or Afghan rebels were backed by the US government so that the communist government could be defeated and communism could be prevented from spreading its wings. The Afghanistan people were against the newly formed communist government as the laws were against their religion; the mujahedeen’s fought for their motherland and religion. As the war went on for several years and failed in achieving any result, the Soviets were condemned by the entire world; the US withdrew Salt treaty and boycotted the Olympic Games of 1980 held in Moscow (Encyclopedia Britannica 2019). The United States were thus conducting proxy war with the Soviets who was their old opponent of Cold War. The fearfully destructive and bloody war built a terrorist network and encouraged anti American thoughts. The covert aid provided by the US to the mujahedeen’s was an extremely strategic step; it appointed completely strange people to fight its war in an unknown distant land and thereby ensured zero American casualties.
The early phase of 1990’s witnessed Osama Bin Laden formulating agenda of striking violent attacks along with his al-Qaeda network against the terror formed due to the dominance of US in the Muslim domain. Bin Laden started applying the Saudi citizens to form wedge between western and eastern civilization. His learning years in Jeddah played important role in his being leader of al-Qaeda; the university years impacted his radical thoughts and also helped him enhance skill to market his al-Qaeda (Web.stanford.edu 2019). The financial resources of Bin Laden and his fame related to bravery and piety in conducting combat led to heightening of his image as militant leader. In 1989 after the Soviet withdrew from Afghanistan he came to be treated as a serious threat and radical activist by the Afghan government (Chulov 2019). Hence in 1990 his request to protect Saudi Arabia from Saddam Husain’s invasion threat was denied by the government; this outraged him as Saudi Arabia dependent on US troops for security. Thus increasing rift between him and the leaders of the country led to his war against the US so that he could form a sole Islamic state.
The whole scenario could have been different had the al-qaeda group being restricted from conducting its activities against the US; the Saudi Arabian government should have controlled Bin Laden and his radical activities which would have denied his return to Afghanistan and join hands with Taliban militia.
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Chulov, M. (2019). My son, Osama: the al-Qaida leader’s mother speaks for the first time. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/03/osama-bin-laden-mother-speaks-out-family-interview [Accessed 7 Jul. 2019].
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019). Osama bin Laden | Biography, al-Qaeda, Terrorist Attacks, & Facts. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Osama-bin-Laden [Accessed 7 Jul. 2019].
Web.stanford.edu. (2019). Afghanistan, The United States, and the Legacy of Afghanistan?sCivilWar. [online] Available at: https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297a/Afghanistan,%20the%20United%20States.htm [Accessed 7 Jul. 2019].