Assessing Problematic Drug Use/Abuse, Case Planning & Treatment Matching

Requirement

1- Write a report on "Assessing Problematic Drug Use/Abuse, Case Planning & Treatment Matching" in a total of 3000 word count along with 2 references.

Solution

Assessment 2

The description of the case study

Jimmy (Age 15), is a teenager who has been reading in a UK private school for sometimes. His parents recently got divorced and since then he has been facing domestic issues that has destabilised his mental and emotional position. His custody was handed over to his mother as his father had alcohol-related complications and which again was a protruding issue in the divorce process. Deprived of the presence of a father figure he has been facing definitive issues regarding life choices. The guidance from her mother is not enough to sustain this form of behaviour. He has recently been notified by the school administrations that he was allegedly been consuming and also providing marijuana, cannabis and alcohol to his peers. The report was alleged as there was substantial proof but a staff and parents meeting was called where Jimmy's mother was informed of these activities within school premises and was also hinted that Jimmy might be at risk. Hence the predicament was certain that Jimmy has been gravely affected by the various upheavals in his and his family's personal life and this sense of desperation has led him astray in the route of substance abuse. Jimmy's mother has informed the CAF  to gain additional suggestions, counselling and guidelines.
The screening of Jimmy has showcased that he has been turned introverted and emotionally numb and is not in proper control of his thoughts. In addition, he has shown withdrawal symptoms that indicate that the substance-abusing process has been going on for quite some time. There is no self-motivation or initiative to change the current habit and that is what the rest of the study focuses on. In summary, the case is a primary example of negligence and domestic health and the disbalance of these factors have shown an impact on the complications that might have been impactful and thought-provoking for similar cases. The main areas that the case study suggests are Substance use and family, Possible interventions and its effect,

Risk assessment, Rising awareness and emotional deprivation.

The factor of intervention as the only possible option against substance abuse
In such cases as Jimmy and his family the matter of substance abuse place stress on the internal and external relationships that they are experiencing from each other (Järvinen and Room, 2017). If not intervened the relation between Jimmy and his mother would compound and that would make a greater gulf in their current relationship. The intervention is to be placed with precision and educated understanding of the possible effects that it might impact on the whole situation by the end of the implementation process. The comprehension is also to be placed as per the subjective understanding and the comparative means that might be applicable (Shaydurova et al. 2017). The comprehension would also be guided by the rationale that the whole affair of a comprehensive evaluation is on a lateral scale. The effects of substance abuse are to some extent infectious and thus Jimmy's mother and all of those who are related to him to some extent would be effectively affected by this ordeal. The intervention is for the accumulated benefit of Jimmy and his surroundings.

The implementation of pharmacotherapy as an alternative option

The screening has suggested that Jimmy is currently suffering from the consumption of alcohol and cannabis. He has also grown addictions towards the alcohol products despite the fact that he is a minor. The compatibility of these substances has a detrimental effect on the psychological health of Jimmy as well. The lack of self-motivation and other related issues as emotional numbness, lack of social connection and the degradation of academic quality and standards are some of the precursors to a more graver complication that has many effective and subjective effects (Forster et al. 2017). If the complications rise above certain criteria then individuals as Jimmy would not be in fullest control of their emotional balance and control. Thus the only possible intervention would be the process of pharmacotherapy, which is a tried and tested method to turn any drug-affected patient in the normal way of life.  
A close analysis of these substances has showcased that Jimmy has also come in close contact with strong alcohol substances, which is a form of ecstasy and are not usually found in usual drug stores even with a prescription of it. The physiological tests have found the presence of MDDA at 0.03% per cent in the blood test results (Bassiony et al. 2015). The whole cycle of the drug is not expected to reduce for three additional weeks. Pharmacotherapy intends to treat this problem from the ground up as it allows a substantial time frame for the biological clock to adjust in its own pace. The rationale being the fact that the rest of the complication would be dependent on the physical condition,  the physiological history and the effectiveness of the medicines in the past (Al-Musa and Al-Montashri, 2016). The curtailing of the mere substance is never a stable option as Jimmy and individuals like him would always face the uncertainty of possible relapse.  

Individual requirements of Jimmy in the context of the case synthesised

The context of Jimmy has some special contexts that are needed to be addressed before the comprehension of selective and subjective estimation on a particular aspect of Jimmy's internal and external needs. The specification of the drugs particularly as Naltrexone could be seen as the strategic and comparative placements that have selective and accumulative uses in such cases (Hedayati-Moghaddam et al. 2015). The administration is always be done in the presence of a professional administrative, formerly a doctor or a dietician but the results are consistent and thus this rationale could be carried over to the following parts of the assessment and intervention estimations. The regulation is also to be analysed and recorded for future references and also for the comprehension of all the possibilities that could be confronted in the following sessions (Osman et al. 2016). All of these assessments are to be gathered from various parts of the screening process which has to be accurate about the personal estimations.

The intervention approach specifications

The application of the intervention has been there in order to comprehend the possibility of applicability of the choices which are available in the instance of Jimmy. There has been a definitive place for judgment that could be applied for the better part of individual benefits (Ghoreishi et al. 2017). The scenario has to be analysed on an objective scale as there are countless other examples where simple acknowledgement of the prescribed scenarios which might be applicable upon Jimmy in future.

The rationale of the choice

There are numerous choices which are at the disposal and the consideration of applicability in the scenario for jimmy and as the matter has progressed there has been selective and thorough comprehension of all the possible alternatives that could be placed on their independent accounts. The rationale of intervention is there to supplement the lack of active responses that could be seen from the cumulative phases of the selective process (Doumas, 2015). Jimmy's condition could not be seen as a chronic one as the time frame ox exposure has been substantially low and thus could not be seen as the next possible option that might be considered in such an extreme case. The comprehension is to allow and strategies the culminating effects of correlative understandings on the same ground that follows the best possible interest of Jimmy and his immediate family members. The effects are to be evaluated with the desired results that this possible scenario offers.

Possible intervention goals

The interventional process is the strategic placement of interrelated stages which is essentially the base of any experimental treatment (Adekeye et al. 2015). Here the comparability has to be exactly on the line of the following subjects and their possible integration that might just be a selective process on its own. The possible goals could be categorised in the following sections as-

  • (i)The preservation of mental psyche of the subject, namely, Jimmy

  • (ii)To see that that abstinence is sustainable for the foreseeable future

  • (iii)Generating substantial data that could be applied to other fields as well

  • (iv)Reducing the chances of relapse as much as possible

  • (v)Complimenting the physical change in Jimmy with the emotional and mental change too

  • (vi)To compare how the intervention methods could be recreated in a different context and for a different subject altogether (pediatrics.aappublications.org, 2019).

These objectives are all attainable and measurable as they have been formed as a separate unit of objectives that qualifies the basic model of SMART (Dhandoria and Paliwal, 2019). The time specification is the actual time that Jimmy requires to leave behind his current situation and the estimation does not require the estimation of the drugs administered and monitored alone.

The intervention mechanism and the outcome estimations

These factors are needed to be addressed as far the matter of selective choices go. Here the culmination of all the possible scenarios could be seen in a single thread of communicative chain. The estimations presented here could only be seen as the general light of comprehension and other matters of relativity in the scenarios of independent subjects and the aforementioned conditions they are in. The choices in the case of Jimmy have been guided by the selective choices that require a load of processes that might just be the culmination of all things preceded. This whole affair could be seen in the most constructive phrase that allows an equal and equivalent chance for all such specifications which could not be allowed as far the matter goes by the urgency of the subject's conditions. Every single factor could be placed here as per their own relevance in the actual scenario (ijhsnet.com, 2019).

The matter of intaking efficiency

The matter of intake efficiency could be seen as their own unique and independent part of the whole process. The administration of the actual drugs as Topiramate and Acamprosate do independent contribution to all possible options that could be stipulated as a staple in most of the rehabilitation process. But the instance has been shown as the most effective part of the whole demarcation between the rehabilitation facilities and at-risk scenarios as Jimmy. Jimmy  and his family face a situation that is faced by the teenagers over the world; whereas the percentage of the affected rises up to close to 45% in most developing countries, the numbers are significantly higher in the USA and UK due to increased domestic abuse and lack of parental care (Rovis et al. 2015). The research articles have shown this correlation and the most pathological process of addressing the issue is the intake of the recommended drugs and the recording of the possible changes. The intake could be in various forms, either by oral intake or by IV intake, depending on the physiological condition of the subject.  

Pre-treatment support

Recent studies have suggested that as a matter of subjective choice go the matter has been already clarified that Jimmy is in fact not a definitive addict and simply an ‘at -risk' individual. The culmination of such comprehensive idea could be convoluted if we are to consider the factor of the age limit that Jimmy currently is. Here Jimmy and his mother require a pre-treatment that would inform them of all the possible alternatives which are available to them.

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Use of antagonist pharmacotherapy

The placement of antagonistic pharmacotherapy has been chosen to address all possible means. These drugs act as a repellent drug that targets the endorphin glands which are responsible for the addictive requirement of the human body after ecstasy intake. For Jimmy, the combination of Marijuana and other drugs have created physical conditions and not the effective use of selective phrases. These drugs would provide additional support for Jimmy and would make the conditioning and intervention process useful.

The process of drug control

The process of intervention has been in the light of multiple occasions where the goal is not simply abstinence. The clarification of the process has been on the whole account of immediate results that could only be registered by the immediate implementation. The corresponding part of the whole process is the lack of dependence on harmful substances. The theory is age-old but the application in recent as there has never been the demand for administering such substances to teenagers in a whole historical context. The controlling of the drug would be the initial rationale for Jimmy, before total abstinence (addictioncenter.com, 2019).

The discontinuation of generalized drugs as the intervention technique

The immediate contractor and the comprehension of these drugs have been seen in the immediate rejection of pain relieving drugs  in cases of pain management and other combinations are also used for sleeping disorders. In both of these instance subjects as Jimmy relies heavily on, which is a general and acknowledged complication in the field of pharmacotherapy.    
Intervention application specifications in the case of Jimmy

Theoretical estimations

The intervention conducted under the banner of pharmacotherapy has some theoretical context too. Here the specifications have been on par with the studies conducted by Eliana and  Rush about the process of intervention applicability. The factor of treatment provides the blueprints that could be used for the formation of selective procedures for Jimmy currently. The researchers had proposed three major considerations that could be stressed and experimented within the scenario of Jimmy.

  • The factor of cognitive understanding: The uncontrolled use of substances as marijuana creates a lasting effect on the human mind and its cognitive functions. This estimation could be seen as the primary aftermath in regards to Jimmy. The emotional numbness mentioned is a common factor that could be registered in many subjects across the board (Valdebenito et al. 2015). The inclusion of life skills component as mentioned in this model as language skills, communicative progression and expression of art could be seen as a separate part of the whole experience. The administrator has to consider these factors as the matter emerges as the most prominent part of the whole experience. 

  • Life Problems: The specifications that have been addressed as the biggest part of the whole process is the subjective experience that Jimmy has been experiencing in terms of options and alternatives. The emotional trauma and the sense of  lacking or the innate void that has been specified as part of this intervention process. Yet despite all the possible alternatives it could be stipulated that the formulated parts are easy to address and does not require any form of justification that it imparts in the instance of Jimmy and his family. But as a factor of life problem digs deeper and imparts a sense of traditionalist mentality that view the internal damages in terms of life experiences as permanent (onthewagon.org, 2019). 

  • Individual choices: In the factor of alcohol and cannabis, the choice of subjective preference is what makes the rest of process matter. Here the comprehensible factors are pertained through the perspective of Jimmy. Complications may arise out of all the necessary factors that might just be the last ground of choice for Jimmy and his family.   

For each of the factors or the pillars of interventions mentioned there are some common grounds that could be mentioned here for plausible application for Jimmy, namely, (i)Gender, age and other, (ii)demographic factors, (iii)Cognitive factors, (iv)Life problems, (v)Treatment history and (vi) network of support. These factors are to be applied on the instance of Jimmy, and then a suitable route is to be selected.

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Practical estimations

The estimation of the practices applied and registered is the other method of cooperative and another estimate process that requires the optimal support from the dependence of the selective processes as the better part of the accumulated benefit from all the possible options and their ringing as the most selective processes (Caplan et al. 2015). The justification would be liable for the estimations that could be gathered in regards to Jimmy. The estimations are also to make certain changes applicable over the others. These specifications are to be engrossed and covered in the model of social acceptance elaborated below. 

  1. Intervention goals evaluation process: The goal of the intervention evaluation would be the next possible option that could make the uncertainty of the situation mend. The selective progression in the instance of Jimmy would be complimentary for the selection of the choices that are to be placed in the intervention process. 

  2. The aspect of Social support: Many recent studies have shown a whole 12% of patients or support holders are related to an extended family. This specification allows the estimation of the social support that could be seen in most of these cases. The ratio of cooperation is only a few recorded instance quite unlike the scenario of Jimmy.

  • (i)The respective families have the obligations that might just be inclusive of the purposes that might be additional support for Jimmy from his mother.

  • (ii) The nature of the engagement and their specific needs with one another also matters and (iii) various help providers add additional criterion for the families to be fulfilled. 

The factor of Motivational interviewing would also be helpful in this regard. The reliance for Jimmy on his surrounds has been a major factor that might work in the benefit of him. The term could also be specified as the social rehabilitation and in such a scenario all the members who are related to Jimmy is a form of stakeholder. The pre and post-treatment of support has been the following option that has been specified under this consideration. 

Conclusion

To conclude the study on the interventional affects of drug abuse and other aspects that is related to the case of Jimmy, one thing is of most certainty that each single step ensures a stable and complimentary effect on the whole process of physical and full psychological recovery. The factor of assistive drug intake has been chosen as the only route available to the complications that Jimmy faces due to the tremendous promises it offers to the patient and their loved ones. The ground is open for further research work as there are thousands of cases as Jimmy’s. The assessment of a universal route to address these issues is the most positive outcome that could come from this. The problems for Jimmy would be formatted in the line of strategic placements that makes the measurement of the progress possible in recent and coming sessions. The most effective route that could be used for Jimmy’s case is general counseling. The excessive use of marijuana and other drug substances shall have long lasting effect on the human body as well as on the psychology of the patient. In this case, Jimmy is one of the patients who have been addicted to marijuana and other drug abuse. Therefore, for the purpose of treatment if jimmy various cognitive and interventional methods have been used in this study. During this study Jimmy has been provided with various options which can help him to rebuild his psychology. Therefore, to conclude the study on the interventional effects of drug abuse and other aspects that is related to the case of Jimmy, one thing is of most certainty that each single step ensures a stable and complimentary effect on the whole process of physical and full psychological recovery. The factor of assistive drug intake has been chosen as the only route available to the complications that Jimmy faces due to the tremendous promises it offers to the patient and their loved ones. The ground is open for further research work as there are thousands of cases as Jimmy’s. The assessment of a universal route to address these issues is the most positive outcome that could come from this. 

Reference List

  • Book

  • Järvinen, M. and Room, R., 2017. Youth drinking cultures: European experiences. In Youth Drinking Cultures (pp. 17-32). Routledge:(UK)

  • Journals:

  • Shaydurova, T.Y., Dorozhkin, E.M., Starikova, L.D., Shaydurov, A.A. and Zaitseva, E.V., 2017. Pedagogical conditions of primary drug abuse prevention among students of a higher education institution. Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 12(7b), pp.1229-1236.

  • Forster, M., Gower, A.L., Borowsky, I.W. and McMorris, B.J., 2017. Associations between adverse childhood experiences, student-teacher relationships, and non-medical use of prescription medications among adolescents. Addictive behaviors, 68, pp.30-34.

  • Bassiony, M.M., Salah El-Deen, G.M., Yousef, U., Raya, Y., Abdel-Ghani, M.M., El-Gohari, H. and Atwa, S.A., 2015. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 41(3), pp.206-211.

  • Al-Musa, H.M. and Al-Montashri, S.D.S., 2016. Substance abuse among male secondary school students in Abha City, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and associated factors. Biomed Res, 27, pp.1364-73.

  • Hedayati-Moghaddam, M.R., Fathimoghadam, F., Eftekharzadeh-Mashhadi, I. and Pourafzali, S.J., 2015. Epidemiology of tobacco and substance abuse among university students in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran, in 2008. Razavi Int J Med, 3(3), p.e27085.

  • Osman, T., Victor, C., Abdulmoneim, A., Mohammed, H., Abdalla, F., Ahmed, A., Ali, E. and Mohammed, W., 2016. Epidemiology of substance use among university students in Sudan. Journal of addiction, 2016.

  • Ghoreishi, S.M.S., Shahbazi, F., Mirtorabi, S.D., Ghadirzadeh, M.R. and Hashemi Nazari, S.S., 2017. Epidemiological study of mortality rate from alcohol and illicit drug abuse in Iran. Journal of research in health sciences, 17(4).

  • Doumas, D.M., 2015. Web-based personalized feedback: is this an appropriate approach for reducing drinking among high school students?. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 50, pp.76-80.

  • Adekeye, O.A., Adeusi, S.O., Chenube, O., Ahmadu, F.O. and Sholarin, M.A., 2015. Assessment of alcohol and substance use among undergraduates in selected private universities in Southwest Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 20(3), pp.1-7.

  • Dhandoria, R. and Paliwal, A., 2019. Prevalence of Tobacco Products Abuse among School Going Adolescents in the Field Practice Area of Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur. Journal of Advanced Medical and Dental Sciences Research, 7(7), pp.94-98.

  • Rovis, D., Bezinovic, P. and Basic, J., 2015. Interactions of school bonding, disturbed family relationships, and risk behaviors among adolescents. Journal of school health, 85(10), pp.671-679.

  • Valdebenito, S., Ttofi, M. and Eisner, M., 2015. Prevalence rates of drug use among school bullies and victims: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, pp.137-146.

  • Caplan, B., Bogner, J., Brenner, L., Ilie, G., Mann, R.E., Hamilton, H., Adlaf, E.M., Boak, A., Asbridge, M., Rehm, J. and Cusimano, M.D., 2015. Substance use and related harms among adolescents with and without traumatic brain injury. Journal of head trauma rehabilitation, 30(5), pp.293-301.

  • Online Articles:

  • pediatrics.aappublications.org,(2019), Substance abuse remedial investigation. Available at:pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/140/6/e20170982.full.pdf [Accessed on:13.10.2019]

  • ijhsnet.com,(2019),Drug abuse actions among teenagers, Available at:ijhsnet.com/journals/ijhs/Vol_5_No_2_June_2017/4.pdf[Accessed on:13.10.2019]

  • Websites:

  • addictioncenter.com,(2019), College drug abuses. Available at:addictioncenter.com/college/[Accessed on:13.10.2019]

  • onthewagon.org,(2019),Guide for teachers to resolve substance abuse problems. Available at:onthewagon.org/guide-for-teachers/[Accessed on:13.10.2019]

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