- Stakeholder Analysis
- Allocation of Resources
- Technological Advancement
- Socioeconomic Impacts
- Socioeconomic impact of Oil and Gas Industry in the US
- Socioeconomic impact of Wind Energy Industry
- Barriers influencing the achievement of INDC stated by the COP21
Conduct a stakeholder analysis of a developed country of your choice, focusing on the trends and targets in the following areas:
? Allocation of resources
? Technological advancement, and
? Socioeconomic impacts
In addition to this, evaluate the barriers affecting the achievement of INDC stated by the COP21 targets within the country of choice.
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions is considered as an important term that is utilized under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The main function of the INDC is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. All the countries in the world followed a historic international climate agreement within the framework of the united nation (UNFCCC) Conference of the 21st-century parties in December 2015 in Paris (Boyd, 2015). For measurement of this moment, all countries represented what post-2020 climate actions they wanted to take under the new international agreement. This moment is known as their Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. It is the combination of different climate actions which determine whether the world is able to attain the established goals of the Paris agreement or not. In this paper, we will study the stakeholder analysis of the US and also study its different technological advancements. All this provides us necessary data through which we can manage the energy resources of the US in an efficient way. Apart of these, we will also discuss the barriers which INDC faced in its achievement during COP21 (Richards, 2015). The degree of advancement in national climate policies makes it successful in achieving overall objectives. The skills of involved parties in the INDC enable them to implement the convention and its protocol in an efficient manner. Kyoto protocol is known as an international agreement involved in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This bind all its parties by formulating internationally binding emission reduction targets. All the rules and regulations for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol were adopted at COP 7 during 2001 in Marrakesh, Morocco. It can be said that that the INDC provides innovative rules and regulations to countries with which they manage their allocation of resources and technological advancement in an efficient manner. This will make it distinct from the other available frameworks.
Stakeholder refers to any group, individual or institution who interested in the natural resources of the project and who will be influenced by all project activities and have something to lose and gain if conditions of the project change or stay the same as before. A stakeholder analysis of US helps the government in measuring the trends and targets of different areas (Tushar, 2015). After conducting a stakeholder analysis, one can take the initiatives to improve the GDP position and trends of the US. Stakeholder analysis focuses on targets and trends of the following areas:
Allocation of Resources
The energy at low cost is considered a necessary part of a highly industrialized economy such as the United States. It is very difficult to visualize the living standard of Americans in the absence of television, Jet-setters, computers, aluminum cans, and overheated house. In the United States, the market forces will determine the price of energy resources and the allocation of these resources is done as per their prices. Energy resources are considered very important, and their consumption stretches over a very long period. The allocation of energy resources in the US is done as per the demand of people (Twidell, 2015). The demand for energy products in the US is categorized in the following categories:.
Residential Non-electric energy utilization: This category contains the space and other heating electric resources. This use is mainly limited to fuels that are very clean and easy to process in small level quantities.
Substitutable Transportation: This category is a combination of bus, truck and 70 percent of automobile use products.
Industrial nonelectric energy utilization: This category includes different process and space heating, ship, subway, and rail. There are not any constraints during the satisfaction of such demands of individuals.
Non-substitutable transportation: This category of energy products involved air traffic and 20 percent of automotive. All these uses are considered long-distance uses which can efficiently satisfy by the energy resources.
The government of the US takes various initiatives to allocate energy resources in an efficient manner. The state, federal and local entities of the United States determine various policies and regulations for the effective allocation of energy resources (Milano, 2014). Energy resources allocation policies of the US government contain international treaties, taxation, legislation, guidelines for energy conservation, public policy techniques, incentives to investment, and subsidies. Apart from these policies, the government of the US also proposes some necessary mandates regarding energy resources such as gasoline will never exceed $2.00/gallon, and the US will never import so much oil as it did in 1977. With the motive of efficient allocation of energy resources, the government of the US also formulate Energy Policy Acts during 1992, 2007, and 2005 (Salinas, 2013). With the help of such acts and policies the government able to allocate its resources in a significant manner.
So, it can be said that the US facilitates the effective allocation of resources. Due to this INDC able to provide necessary information on resource allocation policies and regulations which ultimately facilitate the local government and the citizen of the country. Proper allocation of resources also facilitates the economic growth of the country. This can be seen from the GDP of the country.
The US is a famous city that gained world leadership in a large number of creative innovations and technologies. The industrial revolution of the country regarding automobiles, electrical machinery and steel forms the development of large scale mass production techniques. Innovation in the US was largely influenced by World War II whose influences over the public of the country are felt even now. The role of US government in focusing defense needs, supporting Research and Development, and in small entrepreneurial firms gives birth to various new innovative technologies which prove profitable for all citizens of the US.
During the 1950s, a large number of US industries have been challenged in global completion. From the past decade or so industrial area of the US has made high progress in adapting to linking technology development and flexible production systems more efficiently to markets and products. At that time economy of the US influenced largely by its long-term barriers such as low saving rate and uneven quality of K-12 education (Koundouri, 2015). The US is considered very strong in terms of innovation, largely in information technology and related fields, as well as newer creative technologies and biotechnologies. With the help of innovation and creation, the US has submitted its new climate action plan to the framework of UN. This will facilitate the US government in building the country strong enough so that it can face all its future challenges easily. As per the recent federal data, the US engineering and science enterprise leads the world. All this is possible due to the innovation capabilities of the country. The government of US spent a huge amount on conducting research and development which brings fruitful result in front of them. The most popular technologies invented by the US is Fuel-cell Vehicles, Next-generation robotics, recyclable thermoset plastic, and precise genetic engineering techniques (Levin, 2015). All these techniques build the US, the most popular innovative country of the world. This advancement of technology improves the quality of their products and services which are a later demand by every country in a large manner.
So, it can be said that advancement of technology enables the country to formulate innovative climate action plan which facilitates high success in future. This will enable the US citizens to grip the prevailing opportunities that arise from a necessary global transformation to clean and supportable development. Due to the high advancement of technology US can submit its INDCs well in advance. This will provide the proper time of planning and design the INDCs so that it can be developed in an attractive and efficient manner.
Oil and gas and wind energy resources are considered the important resources of the US. So, it is the responsibility of the government to maintain these resources and utilize it in an efficient manner. This will facilitate high success in future. The socioeconomic effects of energy facilities play an important role in understanding the culture and environment of the US. The below mention table represent the socioeconomic effects in the Oil and Gas, and Wind energy and Solar Energy Industries (Riahi, 2016):
Socioeconomic impact of Oil and Gas Industry in the US
The oil and gas industries are generally established in rural areas with a nearby town. Establishment of oil and gas industry have following socioeconomic impacts:
Job Creation: Proponents of resource formation affects the local employment of the US in an efficient manner. Job creation mainly depends on the facility characteristics and technology and scale of the project. Job creation influences the lifestyle of people in a significant manner. This will give them earning opportunities with which they can spend their entire life.
Population growth: Establishment of various oil and gas industries enhance the population of the US. Due to the availability of high facilities, a large number of people attracted towards the economy of the US.
Local Fiscal Impacts: Establishment of the large level of industries enhance the tax earning capacity of the US government (Carraro, 2016). Availability of large funds facilitates the government in investing the money in needed areas so that they can also grow as per the economy of the country. This will bring balanced development in the country.
Socioeconomic impact of Wind Energy Industry
Wind energy industry also plays an important role in the success of the US economy. Due to its efficient energy allocation system, it becomes the most popular and successful country in comparison to other countries. The socioeconomic influence of wind energy industry similar in some way to the influence of the oil and gas country. But they have a significant difference. The following are the impacts of wind energy industry in the US:
Tourism: Wind energy industry be the biggest reason for the attraction of a large number of tourists. This will grow the economy of US by enhancing the availability of foreign currency (Zare, 2013).
Recreation: Enforcement of wind energy industry introduces various recreation facilities to remove the problems of the individuals. Recreation facilities enhance the appropriateness of available technologies which ultimately brings various benefits towards the economy of the country.
So, it can be said that allocation of energy resources in the US influence the economic condition of the country in a significant manner. Effective analysis of socioeconomic impact facilitates the government to formulate the INDC in an efficient manner. Appropriateness and design of INDC will be a significant attraction of the capability of the country.
Barriers influencing the achievement of INDC stated by the COP21
Implementation of INDC is considered as a big challenge for the Government of US. The government faces lots of constraints and shortcoming while fulfilling the demands for individual, systematic and institutional capacity building (Jerez, 2013). To meet all the demands subsequently, Green Climate Fund should be capitalized by the government rapidly. This will provide the enough fund to the government with which it can design the INDC in an efficient manner. The US mainly consider its INDC ambitious, equitable, and adequate, given its national circumstances and development status. The main important function of US is to formulate different provisions regarding the development of INDC. During the formation of INDC, it faces various barriers which influence the achievement of INDC. These barriers are following:
Lack of Political stability
A dependent judicial system
Lack of provisions related to incentives
Poor implementation of awareness campaigns
Lack of Feed-in tariffs for the organizations and the general public to supply the grid with large level of electricity facility
The absence of different power purchase agreements which facilitate rapid delivery and signature IPP process of INDC.
Poor implementation of DSM strategy and rules or regulations to ensure the quality of INDC.
Large level of forest exploitation to fit them into the new agenda.
All these barriers influence the achievement of INDC. Due to this, the GDP growth of the economy suffers more. US will strengthen its institutional, systematic and human capacities for the successful implementation and monitoring on its INDC. It will require the support of the different international community to overcome all existing barriers. For implementing the INDC in an efficient manner, it formulates the adaptation and mitigation technology, and a sustained capacity building a program (Bentsen, 2014). This increased reporting, measuring, and verification framework will improve the overall progress and outcome of the various INDC activities. All these activities will be reported in the Biennial Update Reports and National Communication Reports on a continuous basis and submitted to the responsible secretariat.
So, it can be said that INDC plays an important role in the success of US. It is the responsibility of the government to design the INDC in an efficient manner. This will provide long term profit to the economy of the country. The formulation of an adequate climate observation system is necessary for the government of US. This will provide enough knowledge about the climate change scenarios which can efficiently cover while preparing the INDC.
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After studying all this, we can conclude that INDC plays an important role in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. The government of every country must take proper initiatives so that they can develop the INDC in an efficient manner. US can efficiently develop its INDC through formulating a cross-sectoral National Climate Change Committee. This will facilitate the government of the country in oversees all climate change activities. The important thing to the success of every country is its technological advancement. The technical quality of US makes it popular in the whole world. It is known for its quality of technology which can perform every single task with higher accuracy. In the absence of technology one country never place itself in the best countries of the world. Higher technology enhances the GDP growth of the US which ultimately improves the lifestyle of its citizens. Apart of technology advancement, allocation of energy resources should be done efficiently. Effective allocation of resources enforces equal growth of the overall country. Allocation of resources should be done after anticipating the exact demand of the market. This will facilitate the effective allocation of required resources. In addition, the government of US should take the initiative to enforce the climate change activities efficiently. This will improve the quality and design of INDC. Thus, it can be said that government of the US should perform every measure to meet its ultimate objectives and earn economic growth in near future. If the government of the US wants to maintain its performance and image in the world, it should anticipate the socioeconomic impacts of INDC in an efficient manner. This will facilitate them to maintain their economic position in a significant manner.
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