Answer the following questions/issues:
1 Consider the Nine (9) Intel 2016 Cyber Security Threats in the CXO Reading (2015). Rank and compare/contrast the top 5 in order of importance (1 being most important). Explain your answer.
2 Read Wilson et al (2011). Consider the following organizations: (1) Westpac Bank; (2) Coca Cola Amatil; (3) Domino’s Pizza; (4) JB HiFi; (5) AV Jennings; and (6) Tabcorp Holdings. Which of the four SM strategies would best suit each of these organizations? Explain your selection for each organization.
3 Read: ‘The 10 most important lessons IT learned in 2015’. (By Conner Forrest | December 17, 2015)
Discuss the top four lessons for managers when developing corporate IT infrastructure.
4 Consider the following statement:
“Companies tend to green their IT more than they green through IT. Just good economic sense really……”.
Explain what this statement means. Discuss why you agree or disagree with the statement.
5 Complete the following:
From your perspective, what would you commend to the course participants as the major IT management issue across seminars 7-9? (10 lines maximum)
The following threats have been mentioned as per the priority:
1. Cloud services: The organizations have been highly dependent on the cloud services. The cybercriminals have been seeking ways to exploit corporate security policies for protecting cloud services. The cloud services have been providing immense risk of data being disclosed deliberately or accidentally. The hosting companies have a greater ease of control over the private data and information and can even communicate between the end user and access his user data even without his permission. Therefore this threat has to be placed at the highest priority. Additionally, the cloud providers have the authority to the share information with any of the third parties even without any warrant. All these activities poses privacy concerns as the data can be access on the cloud anywhere and anytime where the information can be deleted, or even altered. All these activities have further left a room for potential unwanted disclosure of data and information on the cloud. Thus using cloud services in an organization poses a threat to exploitation and stealing of confidential data by their competitors, cybercriminals and vigilante justice seekers (Shaikh, F. B., & Haider, S., 2011).
2. Attacks through employee systems: As the companies are issues various policies and procedures in order to improve their security systems and are even implementing latest security technologies, a direct attack has become difficult on the business networks. Therefore, the attackers are shifting their focus on the home and public networks of the employees as their only pathways into the confidential information related to business. Due to the fact that the home systems of the employees’ will be relatively less insecure, the attackers are more likely to access the corporate networks using their systems. A new research study has stated that out of various ways of infiltrating an enterprise the biggest weakness of any organizations are their employees themselves. Additionally, a survey was conducted by the YouGov for QA, where it was revealed that there is a gap between the employee’s personal and office like as a quarter of surveys presented that work files are being transferred from office to home, posing more security threats to the organization (Lawrence, J., 2013). Therefore, it has been placed in the second position.
3. Integrity Attacks: The integrity attacks of the system and data of the companies are one of the most significant attacks these days. The transaction or the data gets modified or even seized in the perpetrator’s favor. These attacks are highly difficult to defend and even detect provided the critical data and its pervasiveness. The attacks are although subtle most of the times, these can devastating to the organization being victimized. If not controlled, the cyber criminals will begin to mount data integrity attacks-either for committing fraud on commercial parties’ like corrupting an important data or information, granting rights or quotas which will be placed in breach of legislation as well as regulations. Due to the discrete and selective nature of the attacks, it is very difficult to prevent, detect or correct them. Therefore, a tremendous amount of victim angst and loss have been seen in such cases, placing the cyber threat on the third position in my priority list.(Giani, A. et. Al, 2011)
4. Wearable:All the wearable devices are seen to store personal information of their wearable which can easily be targeted by the cyber attackers who can compromise their smartphones and use the information. The wearable are not presenting risks towards the physical health but with tracking and storing of data in their proprietary software, there are high chances of privacy issues and data breaches. And the most interesting thing being the customers do not even realize its risks. With the wide use of the wearable among the people, it is posing out to be a great threat (Thierer, A. D., 2015).Wearable attack surfaces include the networking software/ WiFi, memory, operating system kernel, access control/ security, software, local files and storage system.Additionally, the data is handed over using EULA ( End User Licensing Agreement), the data can easily be stored by the insurance provider or the employer and no assurance is present for the data in case the company fails, furthermore there are high number of repercussions for allowing specific groups in the health and personal data. Therefore, these pose a great threat and are placed at the fourth position in my priority list.
5. Automobiles:The cars are now being connected to Wi-Fi, Internet etc. posing a great security threat to the hackers who can take advantage of all these external connections and penetrate the network of the car thereby targeting all its safety systems. The hackers can easily penetrate enterprises and government data centers, therefore automobiles would be the easiest target for them. The attacks can hack the externally connected devices and then drop the malware in the cars for gaining access and control over the network of the car and its controller. Therefore, the automobiles pose a great threat as they can easily manipulate the safety systems of the cars ending up with a helpless driver. As automobile are one of the primary necessity of today’s world, these systems tend to pose a huge threat.
The following Social Media Strategies can be used by these organizations:
(1) Westpac Bank: The Westpac Bank can use the “creative experimenter” social media strategies. The company can utilize the need for standardizing and personalizing the customer experiences across the important channels chosen by the client in order to engage or communicate with the company. Westpac Bank can generate clients and customers leads by using Facebook and Twitter. It can open up conversations between the home finance experts and the prospective customers while thinking about first-time lending. A direct message can be sent to the customers who are looking forward to the conversation and they can be provided with personal finance expert present in the bank for all their queries. Social media will help Westpac to clear out all the confusion of their customers and can brief them regarding the comparison and fixed rates new home, car, education etc. loans.
(2) Coca Cola Amatil: Coca Cola Amatil can utilizethe “social media champion” strategy. The organization can launch its own SnapChat or Instagram channel. Then the company can launch its own SnapChat Story across SnapChat for 24 hours and in Instagram as well. This video might involve how Coca Cola spreads happiness by using a content which will have an emotional connect with the audiences. In the middle of this video the company can actually rope in real life Coca Cola experiences and random letters contributing to a discount code for their customers. The selected customers will be given a chance to feature in the next video which will be upload on SnapChat, Instagram, Facebook and Twitter. This will be a beneficial tactic for the organization to engage their audiences.
(3) Domino’s Pizza: Domino’s Pizza can employ the “social media transformer” strategy. The organization can launch an audience specific campaigns, which will be helpful in engaging all its audience and generating all the content that can be shared. This will be the best social media tactics. All the audiences and users will be asked to post their experience of Domino’s Pizza and can even post a video on the social media. This will not only engage the current audience but will make them a part of their brand experience, generating loyal customers. Additionally, this strategy will further be strengthened when every single person will share/retweet/ mention this post or the video, thereby increasing the number of audiences and followers for the company.
(4) JB Hi-Fi: The organization can utilize creative experimenter and update their fan page on Twitter and Facebook. Additionally the organization can launch their own online store where the initial few customers can win discounts and offers on various goods. In their Twitter and Facebook page, they can prepare some online contests for their customers and help gain audience loyalty. The stores can provide some special discount and offers for the initial customers. Few selected customers will be given a tour in a selected section and can have an opportunity to get any electronic appliance free of cost or with huge discount. The online store can offer heavy discount to lure as much customers as they want.
(5) AV Jennings: AV Jennings can utilize the “social media transformer”strategy where they can launch a social business platforms in order to facilitate all their collaborations with the propertier along with all the internal and external changes. This wall will provide a real-time news feed so as to obtain relevant information and facts regarding the business projects, partner’s interactions, customers, communities. All the recommendations can be received on the basis of thedeals being made, the locations of the land etc. In this manner, appropriate information would be easier to find for all the related stakeholders of the land and property. Further, the company can use the video option excessively for conducting meetings virtually, showcasing the land and its condition to the stakeholders.
(6) Tabcorp Holdings: The organization must use the “creative experimenter”. The organization can use an internal platform or social media for interacting with the various experts and IT engineers. The organization with the help of this social media strategy can reduce the use of all the freelancers or the outsider experts, networks, project connections etc. and prepare their own in-house production group. This will help the organization to be free towards making mistakes, learning from their own mistakes and understand their shortcomings. The social media strategy will be highly beneficial in delivering good results.
1. Moving from products to platforms:
While developing corporate IT structure, the IT managers must focus on plug-ins, application-programming interface (API) and software-development kit along with adds-on for driving added value. Additionally, the IT infrastructure and its management needs to include the upstream suppliers with downstream vendors and integrate the value chain into the new platform. By being open to various innovation processes the company can gain a broader range for enriching the innovation gene pool, further attaining valuable scale with higher resources. Further, with these software platforms a greater connectivity is seen in budgeting, forecasting, managing inventory which will help the organization in refining production, better real-time data with on the spot supply-chain processes (Bosch, J., 2009). Because data is an added currency for the organization. The IT management must strive to bring out the state-of-art and technology for the system which cannot be afforded otherwise.
2. Create new business models
The organizations should cultivate a tremendous user’s base having a low/no-cost and basic platform which will be introduced with various paid-for options, tiered access, networking privileges etc. This business model will help in boosting the revenues. The companies can experiment with combining the services, products etc. for creating entirely new business usually with a software that plays a critical role in this new model. The IT infrastructure can stitched information assets with the traditional services and products which will be beneficial in raising the standards of the organization (Betz, F., 2002). For example, Nike has introduced Nike+, a sensor having compatibility with iPod or iPhoneused with the running shoes. The mileage and running habits of the wearer with will be tracked and data will be uploaded on the site where the routes can be shared and workouts can be managed. Therefore, the revenues can be boosted and the company can engage a long range of users.
In order to create revenue streams the organization must mine various exhaust data and other information which is usually a by-product in the usual business operation. It will help in development of new products. There by-products help to monetize the transactional data and in increasing revenues.
3. Co-creating with customers
The organizations can use crowdsourcing and utilize the social tools for engaging their users, partners and customers for solving the issues and problems therefore reinforcing the sense of community and engagement in the process. With the rise of social media and it usage, the companies are empowered by constant connectivity and therefore should increase their software products by interacting with customers (Highsmith, J., & Cockburn, A., 2001). The organization can speed up the cycle time and even shorten the learning curves by identifying the customer’s idea using the computer-generated virtual products, mockups and simulations. Various industries are seen to learn from the example for example the industry of digital camera can attain important firmware for fixing the bugs and enabling new capabilities.
4. Creating agile organization
If the above three lesson are being understood by the IT management, a flexible and agile organization can be adopted. As the creation of IT infrastructure is a team based effort, a teamwork has to be built in the company’s ethos (Highsmith, J., & Cockburn, A., 2001). The IT infrastructure must be employed with agile procedure and methodologies to proceed the processes faster. This will result in increased transparency and organized executives. For example, a software platform called Rypple can be embedded in the IT infrastructure will is responsible for taking new approach for performance evaluation and HR management by public recognition, ongoing feedback and social goals. This shift in software has potential for forcing huger fusion. IT employees require product development and leaders to be software and IT savvy. This will be beneficial in attaining financial profits.
I agree with the statement as the statement implies the implementation of environmental friendly IT procedures.Green their IT means implementing information technology that are consider green or environmental friendly. Green through IT means using information technology implementing environment friendly strategies and methods and using technology for environmental friendly strategies and building economically sustainable business.When the business implement IT processes which are considered to be environmental friendly usually are ineffective.The relevance of green IT for the organizations in today’s scenario can go a long way in making them highly sustainable and economically viable at the same time. Information Technology constitutes 2% of the world’s greenhouse emissions. Which is why, green IT can provide us an important opportunity and potential to narrow this increasing gap. The recent studies have suggested that energy could be saved through virtualization with the help of cloud computing, which includes digital sharing of data. Apart from that, the green IT can also be implemented by using recycling and sustainable electronics in the organizations.
One of the major managerial issue in IT is the change management. The people using information systems are seen to be used to the traditional system. During the implementation of a new IT system,the people react in unexpected manner and find the changes to be useless. Therefore there is a need to manage such information system properly. The programmers must be motivated for increasing the productivity by reusing the pre-programmed modules and even by learning new tools. Changes in technology and information systems are a fundamental part of cultural changes therefore the organizational members must be taught to embrace such culture changes.
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Lawrence, J. (2013). Cyber crime – employees have become one of the biggest risks to a business. HRZone. Retrieved 4 October 2016, from http://www.hrzone.com/perform/business/cyber-crime-employees-have-become-one-of-the-biggest-risks-to-a-business
Giani, A., Bitar, E., Garcia, M., McQueen, M., Khargonekar, P., & Poolla, K. (2011, October). Smart grid data integrity attacks: characterizations and countermeasures π. In Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 232-237). IEEE.
Thierer, A. D. (2015). The internet of things and wearable technology: Addressing privacy and security concerns without derailing innovation. Adam Thierer, The Internet of Things and Wearable Technology: Addressing Privacy and Security Concerns without Derailing Innovation, 21.
Betz, F. (2002). Strategic business models. Engineering Management Journal, 14(1), 21-28.
Highsmith, J., & Cockburn, A. (2001). Agile software development: The business of innovation. Computer, 34(9), 120-127.
Bosch, J. (2009, August). From software product lines to software ecosystems. In Proceedings of the 13th international software product line conference (pp. 111-119). Carnegie Mellon University.
Shaikh, F. B., & Haider, S. (2011, December). Security threats in cloud computing. In Internet technology and secured transactions (ICITST), 2011 international conference for (pp. 214-219). IEEE.