GSM: Global System for Mobile: An Era of Cellular Network Technology

GSM Global System for Mobile

GSM is nothing other than the network type that is used for building a cellular network technology – a must-have device for humankind at present to keep in touch with the world.

GSM is a connection between two individuals – the individual called and the caller- and is the essential service of all cell phone systems. To implement this service, the system must be able to maintain and set calls, which include a few tasks: The caller is identified, the location is determined, the call is routed, and guarantee that the conversation keeps on going until the call is disconnected. After the exchange, the connection is discontinued. In the case of a mobile network, the connection of calls is a highly complex task, since there is no wire and fixed location. It allows customers to move using a remote (radio) connection.

This blog, assimilated by the experts at allassignmenthelp, will discuss the GSM network and its components, its nitty-gritty, and finally the way it works.

Read more: Travel & Technology- How It Has Changed People’ lives?

What is GSM or Global System for Mobile?

When we talk about cellular voice and data, GSM which is also known as Global System for Mobile is an open network, which makes it possible. GSM is a widely used mobile technology on Earth. If we talk about shares, GSM occupies 70% of subscribers for a digital cellular network in the whole world.

Narrowband technology is used in GSM which is known as TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) for transmission of signals. Digital Technology was used to develop GSM and it was able to carry the bandwidth of 64 KB/S to 120 MB/S. The frequency band required for GSM is either 900 MHZ or 1800 MHZ.

History of GSM

It is always good to start from the beginning. One should go through history and then we can have a better understanding of mobile technology.

Generation wise GSM system

Therefore, take a look at the differences of the GSM below:

1G (First Generation of a cellular network technology)

Analog transmission is required by first-generation cellular networks for speech services. Roaming and handover capabilities were not able to interfere between countries. And this was the loss for the first-generation mobile.

2G (Second Generation of a cellular network technology)

Digital transmission was used by the second-generation mobile handset. It was able to roam and hand over. It uses TDMA, CDMA, and FDMA. This network offered bandwidth of 30KHz to 200KHz and allowed users to send SMS and MMS as well.

3G (Third Generation of cellular network technology)

Third-generation technology has quick information exchange rates. It empowers to include administrations, for example, portable TV, GPS, and video conferencing. The administrations incorporate a wide zone of remote voice communication, video calls, and broadband remote information, which are in every portable condition.

4G (Fourth Generation of a cellular network technology)

The fourth generation brings a mobile revolution to the world. Now it has become an integral part of everyday life. It is famous for its fast networking and provides lightning-fast connection wherever you go. It offers a download speed of around 14mbps which is almost five times higher than 3G networks. 

5G (Fifth Generation of cellular technology)

If we take only one name for the arrival of 5G then, it may be unfair to those who contributed a lot to it. No one company or one person is responsible for 5G origin as multiple companies have contributed to this. But Qualcomm (an American company) has played a very significant role in its invention. 5G is presently delivering higher multi-Gbps data, ultra-low latency, has more availability, can effectively manage massive users, etc.

Students pursuing communication engineering, IT, or a subject related to GSM are supposed to know all this very precisely. If you are one of those who are facing issues related to your assignments and not getting enough time to prepare yourself for becoming a good student in the subjects mentioned, information technology assignment help is one of the expert services that is easily available from professional assignment makers. Get your paper sorted by pros quickly!

Also Read: Use of Technology in Travel and Tourism

How do Our Mobile Phones Work and Some Related Statistics?

When a cell is switched on, it is used to search the GSM mobile network from the nearby mobile tower. GSM carriers used to interact with other GSM carriers and are roaming contact and have the benefit of using SIM which is also known as (Subscriber Identity Module).

At Present, more than 690 networks offer the service of GSM in more than 219 nations, and GSM accounts for 86.8% of all worldwide mobile connections. As indicated by GSM World, presently there are more than 5 billion GSM cell phone customers around the world.

GSM World represents China as “the biggest single GSM consumer-based market”, with more than 1.6 billion customers, which is followed by India with 1.28 billion, 386 million Indonesians, and the USA with 327 million customers followed by Brazil and Russia.

Architecture of GSM

There are three important systems in GSM:

  • Base Station System
  • Operation and Support System
  • Switching System

Base Station System

In the BSS, the function related to the radio is performed, which consists of BST (base transceiver stations) and BSC (base station controllers).

BTS (base transceiver stations)

The radio interface is handled by BTS to the mobile station. Radio equipment (BTS), consists of antennae and transceivers which are needed by every cell to service within the network.

BSC (base station controllers)

BSC is used to provide all the physical links and control functions between BTS and MSC. This is a high-capacity switch that gives functions, cell configuration data, and radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations, such as controls.

Mobile Station (MS)

The SIM card contains a list of available networks and user identification numbers. The mobile phone is known as Mobile Equipment (ME) and the data of the subscriber is stored in the Subscriber Identification Module or SIM. MS= ME+SIM

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Other Important Parts of GSM

There are various other parts that students need to be aware of when pursuing a course that helps them become GSM-savvy and make a bright future in this field.

Let’s take a look at some of the important parts of it:

Roaming – the Concept

It enables a mobile subscriber to make voice calls, send and get information, or access different services while going outside the geographic coverage region of ​​his home network.

This is technically maintained by authentication, mobility management, and billing processes. Depends on the establishment of roaming between commercial terms – and network operators – are contained in authorized roaming agreements.

In the case that the visited network is in the same nation as the home network, it is known as national roaming. The visited network is outside the nation of origin, at that point, it is known as international roaming.

If the visited network works on another technical standard in comparison to the home network, at that point it is known as the inter-standard roaming.

GSM roaming, which incorporates roaming between GSM networks, enables mobile subscribers to have the capacity to utilize one bill, a single number, and one telephone. The comfort of GSM roaming is an essential driver behind the success of the Global Subscriber Module Platform in the whole world.

GRAN (GSM Radio Access Network)

GSM Radio Access Network: This Consists of a BSC (Base Station Controllers) and BTS (Base Transceiver Stations) to maintain the radio link between the telecommunication core network and mobile phones. This network is used to provide access to PS (packet-switched) and CS (circuit-switched) core networks.

RAN which is also known as A radio, is a part of MTS known as a mobile telecommunication system. Ideally, it stays between devices like a computer, a mobile phone, or a remote-controlled machine, and gives links with its CN also known as the core network (CN).

Based on standard, mobile and other wireless devices that are connected are known differently as UE or user equipment, MS or a mobile station, terminal equipment, etc. RAN functionality is usually provided by a silicon chip that also resides in both core networks as a user device. When it comes to online assignment help we will guide you and make sure you get good marks.

NMS (Network Management Subsystem)

This is the 3rs subsystem of the global subscriber module. In addition to the GSM Network are BSS (Base Station Subsystem) and NSS (Network Switching Subsystem). The goal of the Network Switching Subsystem is to observe the various elements and functions of the network.

The Communication Server and the Database Servers are connected with the operator’s network via Local Area Network (LAN). The network’s management information is stored in the database server stores.  The data communication between the equipment in the GSM network and the Network Management Subsystem is taken care of by communication servers.

NMS used to work in three categories:

  • Configuration management
  • Fault management
  • Performance management

All of the elements of the GSM network like HLRs, MSCs, and BTSs are covered under these functions.


The goal of fault management is to find problems of different types and then fix them as quickly as possible. Valuable information about the status of alarm events is provided to the network operator by the fault management and a database of the history of alarms is maintained.

NMS database is used to store the alarm and the stored data can be searched as per the criteria defined by the network operator.

Configuration Management

The goal of configuration management is to manage updated information about the configuration and operation status of the elements of the network.

Particular configuration functions include management of software and hardware, radio network management, security operations, and time synchronization.

Performance Management

In performance management, individual network elements are collected by NMS and stored in the database. Because of this information, the network operator can think about the real performance of the system with an organized performance and identify both bad and good performance areas inside the network.

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Also read: Programming Language (C&C++)

Essential Parts to Set Up a GSM Network

When one wants to become a GSM specialist or a telecommunication engineer, he/she must know the components required to build a GSM network. Once a person knows all of these, he/she can build a successful network using all of those parts and pieces.

Let’s get to know it:

Software and Hardware

A particular GSM base station can do nothing without a suite of tools that keep up the database, call-switching capacities, and thereafter. This infrastructure is costly (more often around $ 250,000) and is mixed to design, and it should be stored in a cooled room.

That is made coincidentally for the areas of OpenBTS. Accordingly, the framework replaces the physical infrastructure of the central network with VoIP programming – for this situation, an open-source program called asterisk can be installed on any off-the-rack PC.

IP Connection

On the network of OpenBTS, users of mobile can communicate with other people, regardless of whether the system is connected to the web, yet a web connection is required to contact somebody outside the area.

Power Supply

A power of around 60 watts is drawn by the system employed at Niue. It is provided by three marine batteries, that numerous regional people use on their boats. Since the power requirements of the structure are exceptionally low, Burgess says a base station can be kept running on wind or solar power.

Five-gigahertz IP Radio was used by the group to interface the BTS unit to the telecommunications connection system’s 4-km away from the wired Internet framework. Burgess says that if the web connection isn’t much great, the response time might be somewhat sluggish. However, there isn’t much data transfer capacity to make the framework function.


A GSM set is much required and the technology was re-created by OpenBTS. It is now the most widely used network technology in the world.


An antenna is required by the OpenBTS system to facilitate signals and this is similar to all the cellular networks. Various types of antennas are there which can be used according to the range and operator’s needs.

As you can see all the necessary parts used to build a GSM network are being mentioned and discussed.

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Institutes Where Students Can Get a Course In GSM

There are various universities in the USA as well as other countries where students can do a course in GSM. The course can help them to have a bright career.

Following are some of the popular institutes around the world where students can do a course in telecommunication programme:

  • Northeastern University in Boston, MA
  • Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ
  • The University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA
  • The University of Southern in California, LA
  • Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain
  • Master in Information and Communications Engineering
  • University of Klagenfurt – Faculty of Technical Sciences, Klagenfurt, Austria
  • MSc Wireless Communication Systems
  • Lancaster University – Faculty of Science and Technology, Lancashire, United Kingdom
  • MSc Wireless Communication Systems
  • Lancaster University – Faculty of Science and Technology, Lancashire, United Kingdom

As mentioned, these are some of the best colleges where students can pursue higher degrees. And these degrees are related to the field of GSM, CDMA or other telecommunication networking and have a very prosperous future.


GSM cellular network is a highly critical networking system. It is used by billions of people around the world for connecting. Businesses around the world also use technology to communicate with each other to keep effective communication. The industry has huge prospects for the ones who are pursuing higher studies in this field. They can land great jobs and fetch handsome salaries by justifying their qualification and excellence.

Also read: Networking Connectivity: A Comprehensive Guide to Its Operation

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