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Programming Language ( C& C++ )

Introduction

Many programming languages ​​based on the C programming language and its immediate descendants, for example, C #, C ++, Objective-C and C, are the most well-known programming languages ​​used on the planet till date. The most talented programmers realize how to utilize C, and C is commonly the language that most programmers are adopting first.

A programming language is a language which is built formally to communicate directions for a machine, particularly a PC. Programming languages ​​can be utilized to express calculations or make programs to control the conduct of the device.

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To date, there are a great many distinctive programming dialects ​​that have been made principally in the PC part, and a lot more are as yet being produced each year.

This assignment will go through various milestones and stages, discussing the development of two of the most successful programming language, i.e., C++/C & Java.  The programming language C greatly influenced C ++, and therefore it was necessary to provide in-depth information in this programming language too. This assignment includes decisions taken by their respective creators and the logic behind them.

Bell Labs, developed C programming language between the year 1969 to 1973 and the one who developed was Dennis Ritchie. Within the same period, the development of the operating system UNIX was also underway.

C is frequently known as the middle-level language by numerous programmers. This isn’t because it isn’t a beneficial language, but because of this, the framework can achieve low-level assignments.s

Fact is that C was implemented explicitly to execute Unix C, instructions of assembly are compiled for the code; hence, it depends upon the complexity of compiler and code optimization capacities, the speed of the C code assembly And that is the reason C is amongst the fastest developing programming language.

History

  • The starting point of C is firmly identified with the improvement of the Unix OS, initially implemented by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in the assembly language on PDP-7, in which numerous ideas of associates have been incorporated. He chose to port the OS into a PDP. The first PDP-11 variant of Unix was created in the assembly language.
  • Ken Thompson aims to create a comfortable working environment using any of the resources available to him. His design involved implementing some similar ideas, such as “a clear assumption of a process as a locus of control, a command interpreter as a user-level program, a tree-structured file system, generalized access to devices, and simple representation of text file. “
  • Even though, some different perspectives were excluded by Ken Thompson “including unified access to files and memory.” Aside from this, rather than utilizing PL/I which was the implementing Multics language, Thompson and his group employed another programming language called BCPL.
  • Like PL/I, BCPL was likewise a strange state language; One of the extraordinary advantages that Thompson did not have any desire to relinquish because of its transparency and easiness in the low-level computing construct.
  • Aside from the assembly, Unix was the first OS to be executed in some other language. Earlier models incorporated the Master Control Program (MCP) and Multics system (written in PL / I) for the Barrage B5000 (which was written in ALGOL) in 1961. Around 1977, Stephen and Ritchie rolled out more improvements to the language to encourage the portability of the Unix OS. Johnson’s compact C compiler filled in as the reason for some usage of C on new platforms.

The B Programming Language

In the year of 1968, Ken Thompson confronted an issue with PDP-7, a machine for which he had no excellent programming accessible. Ken Thompson at that point made his very own PDP-7 assembler. However, it was in 1969, that Doug McCloy made the high-level language for the system.

Features of C language

  • In C, parameters are accepted by functions and return value ​​and perform different types of task, for example, showing data, input from the user and so on.
  • This is a very simple language to use and learn. Main components are present in minimal number, for example, keywords, operators and built-in functions.
  • Only during the time of compile, errors are checked.  There are no safety checks for bad array indices, bad array indices or bad pointers.
  • C has an assembly language with the characteristics of high-level language which can be utilized to build system software, software packages, etc.
  • Portability level is very high when we talk about C. Without making any big changes in the software; the written program can be created on another computer.
  • Another motivation to utilize C is the way that software engineer C is prepared to overlook his bad points since those good points are so remarkable. Indeed, most of the issues with C disappointed with the experience. Let’s assume a case that, pointer and arrays for beginners rapidly disappear with the unusual experience since that the “syntax error” for the indirect supervisor makes a natural disparity for experienced software engineers.
  • When we talk about utility programs, embedded applications, and programming device drivers, C is the best option.
  • It is a process-based language. This indicates that the program is seen as a method to solve any problem. Thus various code blocks or function modules have been written to solve this problem.

Regardless of the aspects of the language that get tenderfoots, there is an uncomplicated and small language which is effectively translatable with the basic compiler. The information types that help it are appropriate for those given by real machines, and the individuals who use PCs for their work. It turns out to be less hard to learn languages.
In 1985, Stroustrup’s published language known as C ++ programming language. Around the same time, C ++ was implemented as a business product. The language was authoritatively not yet standardized, making the book an essential reference. The language was updated again in 1989 to incorporate ensured and stable individuals, just as inherited from numerous sections. In 1990, the annotated C ++ reference booklet was published. Around the same time, Borland’s Turbo C ++ compiler will be published as a business product.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of C programming language.

Advantages

  • The syntax of the C language code is exceptionally straightforward. It utilizes a keyword like main, switch, other, and so on. This sort of keyword is all we use every day to decide in our lives.
  • C is a very compact language. This indicates the C programs made for a PC can undoubtedly keep running on another PC with no change or slight changes.
  • The C compiler is a lot quicker than the other language compiler. The C compiler can gather roughly 1000 lines of code in one moment. This code is more efficient than the unstructured code because of the distribution of the fewer branches. The maintenance of C code is simple because of the readability of code.
  • Including another feature is simple and quick.
  • Program code is protected.

Disadvantages

The concept of Object_Oriented programming language was not there in C; this is the reason that C++ was developed later on.
Runtime Checking is not present on C. Integer value can be passed for the floating data type.
Not easy to fix the bug, as program extends.
There is no such concept of the namespace in C.
There is no such concept of destructor or constructor in C.

Types, Operators, and Expressions

Identifiers

Identifiers (i.e., work names, variable names, etc.) are formed of digits and letters and are case-sensitive. The essential character of an identifier should be a letter, which contains underscores (_).

C language has 32 reserved keywords and can not be utilized as identifiers (e.g., while, int, and so on). Also, it is a smart thought to avoid reclassifying the identifiers utilized by the standard library of C, (for example, the standard name of the function, and so on).

Style Note

For variable names, lowercase is used, and for symbolic constants, uppercase is used. There should be short local variable names and descriptive and longer external names. Variable names may begin with an underscore (_), yet such names should be avoided, by the convention, are reserved for implementations of the library.

Types

The C programming language is a typed type of language. Here every variable is provided with specific types which define the value to be shown, how the memory is filled with data, and types of operations that can be performed on it.

By pushing the software engineer to define the interface and variable type clearly, the compiler is enabled by type system to catch the errors that are type mismatched.

Bitwise Operators

C has several bitwise operators that allow operations on individual bits (for example., binary 1s and 0s). These are necessary for low-level programmings, for example controlling hardware.

Assignment Operators

Inclusion of bitwise or arithmetic operators often includes assignment operator = (i.e, z = x + y). In some cases within these expressions, the variable which is left hand is repeated on the right (like, x = x + y). This type of expression can be composed in compressed form x + = y, in which + = operator is known as the assignment operator.

Conclusion

Even though numerous coding languages ​​are used to design PC applications, the programming language, C, is the most familiar language around the world. Everything from microcontrollers to the working framework is composed in C since it is entirely versatile and flexible, which can have extreme control with least command. If you are keen on making a career in PC programming, it is good to begin learning the C programming language.

There are numerous advantages to gaining from; However, the most fundamental advantage is that the C programming language is known worldwide and is utilized in a huge number of uses including progressed logical frameworks and working frameworks. In this day and age, a PC software engineer must have the capacity to speak with associates in various nations. In this manner, it is essential that regardless of whether they don’t talk a similar oral language, at any rate,f the coding is comprehended for everybody. For more Programming Homework Help, you can visit the website.

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