How does Distributed Database work?
A distributed database is considered as a database in which two or more files are located in two different places. However, they are either connected through the same network or lies in a completely different network. It is a single huge database in which portions of the data are stored in multiple physical locations and processing system is done by distributing the data among various nodes of the database. It is a system in which a huge database is settled down in a distributed manner in several physical locations to avoid any kind of confusions while dealing with that database.
The distributed database system is managed in a centralized manner by connecting the data logically. This helps in managing the bulk data in a manner as if it was all stored in one single place. In such a centralized database it is seen that the data are synchronized in such a manner that deletes or updates done in one location is automatically upgraded in other parts of the data. This is the concept of a distributed database in making the management of bulk data easy. Now our experts from Assignment Help Australia will tell you more with the help of an infographic.
Definition of Network
The network is defined as a system that helps in connecting multiple devices together that helps them to communicate effectively. Networks can be small or it can consist of billions of devices that are connected to each other. Networking is of various types and each has some role or the other to perform. Two major types of networks are LAN and WAN. The first type is a local area network that allows for forming a network to a specific and personalized area such as home, office and campus.
Within this also there is single or large network depending on the space of the area. On the other hand, WAN is a wide area network that is not limited to a single area and spread over multiple locations. WAN is seen to consist of multiple LAN system and these LANs are connected with the help of internet. Moreover, WAN allows limiting the access to the network with the help of authentication, firewalls and other security systems.
The network is also defined according to characteristics that help in categorizing different types of networks such as typology, protocol and architecture and forms an integral part in the distributed database system.
The typology is the geometric arrangement of the network in a system in the form of a ring, star, bus and others.
The protocol is another characteristic that defines a set of rules and signals that help the networks use to communicate with each other. For example, the protocol for LAN is Ethernet.
Architecture is another network characteristics that show the design or form of the network such as peer to peer or server architecture.
The characteristics of the networks play an important role in a distributed database because it helps in connecting data in different location effectively and in a secured manner.
Features of Distributed Database
In a collection or group, it is seen that a distributed database is logically connected to each other and is often described under a single database. This means that a distributed database is not kept in a spread manner and is represented in a collaborative form.
This interdependency of the database on each other from a different location is done with the help of a processor. The processors in a site connect with another site with the help of the network and do not have any kind of multiprocessing configuration. However, there are misconceptions that the distributed database system is loosely connected to each other in a file.
In reality, it is not so because the entire process of a distributed database system is a complicated one. Based on these facts, the distributed database has various types of features that help defines them clearly, such as:
- Location independent
- Distributed query processing
- Reliability of safety and reduction in data loss
- The internal and external security system
- Cost-effective by reducing the bandwidth prices
- Ease of access to the data even if a failure occurs in umbrella network
- Easy integration of more nodes to the database
- The efficiency of speed and resources
There are some concerns connected to a distributed database system such as it should be kept up-to-date and there should be consistency while using the data that is remotely stored.
Advantages of Distributed Database system
A distributed database is capable of offering various types of advantages to the business in the maintenance of large size data in a simpler and systematic form. This type of database is able to make modular development which means that a system can easily be expanded by connected new computers or local data to a site. Then the site is connected to the distributed system without much interruption.
The distributed database also offers advantages over a centralized database system by preventing the system to stop working completely. In a time of failure, it is seen that a centralized database system stops completely, while in a distributed database in case of failure the system becomes slow and continue to perform until the error is fixed completely. This allows the user of the database from stopping their work completed in a time of failure.
In addition to the above benefits, it is also seen that the distributed database system helps in offering lower communication costs to the admin. The admin can access the data effectively if is located close to where it is extracted the most. This facility helps in reducing the cost of the database admins. This is because communication becomes easier in this system by locating the data closer to the point of use.
The response rate for the extraction of particular information or data is done at a faster rate with the help of the distributed database system. This is because the data is distributed in such a manner that it is kept close to the users in a particular site and they can use the data anytime they want from the site. These are some of the advantages that the distributed database offers to the user for handling large and complex data.
The environment in which Distributed Database Works
The ability to create a distributed version of a database has been existing since the 1980s. This is done based on various types of distributed database environment that are widely categorized as homogenous and heterogeneous database.
This shows that the process of distributed database system does not work in a single type of system and is spread over sites. This means that multiple computers and networks are involved in the process. This has led to the categorization of the environment of the database in two different categories.
Homogenous database– environment helps the sites to store the database identically. This type of environment works in a way in which the structures are the same in all the sites such as operating system, database management system and data structures. This environment further works under two environment that is autonomous and non-autonomous.
Autonomous– in this each DBMS works in an independent manner by passing messages back and forth and helps in sharing data updates.
Non-autonomous– in this environment the central database management system works and coordinates database access across sites and update other nodes.
Heterogeneous Database– in this environment different sites use different types of software to reach the problems of query processing and transactions. In such type of environment, the distributed database is stored in different sites in such a way that one site is unaware of what is having in another site. In such a process, the company uses different data models for storing the database and hence translation has to be done to connect from one model to another.
In a heterogeneous environment, it is seen that a distributed database system works in a much complex manner and involves various steps, unlike the homogeneous database. There are two broad categories of nodes such as systems and gateway. The system helps in supporting one or all the functionality of the logical database. Gateway, on the other hand, helps in creating paths for other databases without creating many benefits for one single logical database.
Options for Distributing a Database
Distribution of a database in a site in a number of forms depending on the characteristics of the data. There are four basic strategies adopted by the Distribution Database system to distribute the data across multiples sites.
The types of strategies that distributed database can use in its process are data replication, horizontal partitioning, vertical partitioning and combination of the above. The characteristics and the processes involved in each of these options can be explained with the help of relational databases. Now our instant assignment expert will tell you about the Data replication.
In this type of option, it is seen that the entire data relation is stored in two or more number of sites. In this type of processes, it is seen that the database is distributed or stored in copies in different systems entirely. This is a way distributed database system will allow for fault tolerance capacity by storing a copy of all data in a number of sites.
Such type of processes in common in an information system organization in which the database is removed from a centralized position and moved to location specific server so that it is kept close to the user. This type of method help in using either synchronous or asynchronous distributed database technologies. Thus, replication is a copied version of the entire database stored in every site that the organization use to access.
Advantages of replication are huge due to the ease of usage and highly secured process. Some of the advantages of using the replication process of the distributed database are:
Reliability- this means that one site containing the relation database fails then another site can be approached easily to get a copy of the database. The available copies can then be uploaded after the transaction takes place and failed nodes can be updated once they are repaired and return to service.
Fast response- this process allows for fast response of the database in case of need because the data is stored near to the user to be processed quickly.
Node decoupling- is another benefit of the replication process for distributing database because in this each transaction may move without coordinating with another network as each site has access to the entire database.
Data Replication process also faces various kinds of disadvantages such as space for storage requirement as the database is huge and also complexities and cost attached to updating the database because each site has to be updated about any new relation.
This is yet another process that is used in a distributed database in which some of the rows in a relation are put in one site and other rows are put under a base relation in another site. It is done in a horizontal or base form as the name suggests and the rows of the database are distributed in a number of sites.
This can be seen with the help of an example that is customer relations in which the rows are located in home branches. In this system in case the transaction is made in the home branch then the transaction is processed locally and response time is reduced. In case the customer makes a transaction in another branch then the data is sent to the home branch for processing and then send back to the initiating branch.
This process of distributed database system also has various types of advantages and disadvantages from the efficiency it adds to data management. The advantages of using horizontal partitioning are:
Efficiency- this means that the data in this system is stored close to the user and separated from other data that is used by some other users. This reduces the chances of confusion and improved efficiencies to a great extent.
Local optimization- data is stored in such a way that it can help in improving the performance of local access.
Security- it is the biggest advantage of using this process because all types of data are not available in one place and data that is not relevant is kept separately without any kind of distraction.
The use of horizontal partitioning also has various kinds of disadvantages attached to it such as inconsistent access speed, which means that the data is required from various points and this increases the access time. Moreover, there is a backup vulnerability, which means that due to lack of replication of similar kinds of data when one type of data become damaged in one site then it is completely lost and cannot be updated.
Vertical partitioning is yet another form of distributed database process in which the data is partitioned column-wise. Some of the columns of the data or relations are projected in one site and other columns are projected under a base relation in another site.
In this type of process, the distributed database system works in a separate manner as it works in horizontal partitioning system. The data or relations that are shared in each of the sites are connected to each other with the help of a common domain so that it can be extracted easily.
Vertical partition of the database also has some advantages and disadvantages to being used and getting destroyed. The advantages of vertical partitioning are similar to that of the horizontal partition system because in this process as well data are kept separately without much replication. The only exception that in vertical partition the combination of the data is many complications difficult to make compared to horizontal partitions. For more information, you can also visit Assignment Help Canada.
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